Scientific Research

These studies detail both why ventilation does not protect the public from exposure to secondhand smoke, and how the tobacco industry uses ventilation to defeat smokefree ordinances.

 

Ventilation Studies
Kim, H.; Lee, K.; An, J.; Won, S., "Determination of secondhand smoke leakage from the smoking room of an internet café," Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association [Epub ahead of print], June 13, 2017.
Muthumalage, T.; Pritsos, K.; Hunter, K.; Pritsos, C., "Commonly used air filters fail to eliminate secondhand smoke induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses," Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods [Epub ahead of print], April 16, 2017.
Chan, W.; Lee, S.C.; Li, D.; Chen, X.K., "Cigarette induced PM2. 5 in hotel rooms: an assessment of the effectiveness of management's mitigating measures," International Journal of Hospitality Management 60: 42-47, January 2017.
Zhou, Z.; Bohac, D.; Boyle, R.G., "Continuous weeklong measurements of indoor particle levels in a Minnesota tribal casino resort," BMC Public Health 16(1): 870, August 24, 2016.
Fu, M.; Fernández, E.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.M.; San Emeterio, N.; Quirós, N.; Sureda, X.; Ballbè, M.; Muñoz, G.; Riccobene, A.; Centrich, F.; Saltó, E.; López, M.J., "Second-hand smoke exposure in indoor and outdoor areas of cafés and restaurants: need for extending smoking regulation outdoors?," Environmental Research 148: 421-428, July 2016.
Pritsos, C.A.; Muthumalage, T., "The impact of commonly used air filters in eliminating the exposure to secondhand smoke constituents," Environmental Science Process Impacts [Epub ahead of print], January 14, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Indoor air quality at nine large-hub airports with and without designated smoking areas – United State, October-November 2012," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 61(46): 948-951, November 23, 2012.
Barrientos-Gutierrez, T.; Amick III, B.; Gimeno, D.; Reynales-Shigematsu, L.M.; Delclos, G.L.; Harrist, R.B.; Kelder, S.H.; Lazcano-Ponce, E.; Hernandez-Ávila, M., "Mechanical systems versus smoking bans for secondhand smoke control," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 14(3): 282-289, March 2012.
McNabola, A.; Eyre, G.J.; Gill, L.W., "Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment," Environment International [Epub ahead of print], February 22, 2012.
Jones, M.R.; Wipfli, H.; Shahrir, S.; Avila-Tang, E.; Samet, J.M.; Breysse, P.N.; Navas-Acien, A., "Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], January 24, 2012.
Semple, S.; Apsley, A.; Galea, K.S.; Friel, B.; Snelgrove, V.; MacCalman, L., "Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], January 17, 2012.
Marin, H.A.; Diaz-Toro, E.C., "Reduced exposure to secondhand smoke at casinos in Puerto Rico after the Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in 2007: a pre-post design," Puerto Rico Health Science Journal 30(4): 182-187, December 2011.
Nafees, A.A.; Taj, T.; Kadir, M.M.; Fatmi, Z.; Lee, K.; Sathiakumar, N., "Indoor air pollution (PM2.5) due to secondhand smoke in selected hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], June 15, 2011.
Gleich, F.; Mons, U.; Pötschke-Langer, M., "Air contamination due to smoking in German restaurants, bars, and other venues: before and after the implementation of a partial smoking ban," Nicotine & Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], May 26, 2011.
Kaufman, P.; Zhang, B.; Bondy, S.J.; Klepeis, N.; Ferrence, R., "Not just 'a few wisps': real-time measurement of tobacco smoke at entrances to office buildings," Tobacco Control 20(3): 212-218, May 2011.
Hahn, E.J.; Lee, K.; Jones Cole, L.K.; Whitten, L.; Robertson, H.E.; Sidney, H., "Indoor air quality in Jessamine County, Kentucky public venues, 2009," University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, Clean Indoor Air Partnership, March 4, 2011.
Issa, J.S.; Abe, T.M.O.; Pereira, A.C.; Megid, M.C.; Shimabukuro, C.E.; Valentin, L.S.O.; da C Ferreira, M.M.; Nobre, M.R.C.; Lancarotte, I.; Barretto, A.C.P., "The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers," Tobacco Control 20(2): 156-162, March 2011.
Agbenyikey, W.; Wellington, E.; Gyapong, J.; Travers, M.J.; Breysse, P.N.; McCarty, K.M.; Navas-Acien, A., "Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana," Tobacco Control 20(2): 107-111, March 2011.
Schoj, V.; Sebrie, E.M.; Pizarro, M.E.; Hyland, A.; Travers, M.J., "Informing effective smokefree policies in Argentina: air quality monitoring study in 15 cities (2007-2009)," Salud Publica de Mexico 52(Suppl. 2): S157-S167, 2010.
Bohac, D.L.; Hewett, M.J.; Kapphahn, K.I.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Apte, M.G.; Gundel, L.A., "Change in indoor particle levels after a smoking ban in Minnesota bars and restaurants," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39(6S1): S3–S9, December 2010.
Marin, H.A.; Diaz-Toro, E., "The effect of the smoke-free workplace policy in the exposure to secondhand smoke in restaurants, pubs, and discos in San Juan, Puerto Rico," Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal 29(3): 279-285, September 2010.
Erazo, M.; Iglesias, V.; Droppelmann, A.; Acuna, M.; Peruga, A.; Breysse, P.N.; Navas-Acien, A., "Secondhand tobacco smoke in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile: evaluation of partial smoking ban legislation in public places," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], August 25, 2010.
Liu, S.; Zhu, Y., "A case study of exposure to ultrafine particles from secondhand tobacco smoke in an automobile," Indoor Air [Epub ahead of print], May 11, 2010.
Lee, K.; Hahn, E.J.; Robertson, H.E.; Whitten, L.; Jones, L.K.; Zahn, B., "Air quality in and around airport enclosed smoking rooms," Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], April 21, 2010.
York, N.L.; Lee, K., "A baseline evaluation of casino air quality after enactment of Nevada's Clean Indoor Air Act," Public Health Nursing 27(2): 158-163, March-April, 2010.
Hall, J.C.; Bernert, J.T.; Hall, D.B.; St Helen, G.; Kudon, L.H.; Naeher, L.P., "Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke at outdoor bars and family restaurants in Athens, Georgia, using salivary cotinine," Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 6(11): 698-704, November 2009.
Cameron, M.; Brennan, E.; Durkin, S.J.; Borland, R.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A.; Spittal, M.J.; Wakefield, M.A., "Secondhand smoke exposure (PM2.5) in outdoor dining areas and its correlates," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], October 21, 2009.
Travers, M.J., Indianapolis Air Quality Monitoring Study
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, October 2009
Connolly, G.N.; Carpenter, C.M.; Travers, M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, A.; Mulcahy, M.; Clancy, L., "How smoke-free laws improve air quality: a global study of Irish pubs," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 11(6): 600-605, June 2009.
Ahrens, D.M., "Indoor air quality in eating and drinking establishments in the City of Milwaukee," Milwaukee, WI: Smokefree Milwaukee Project; University of Wisconsin, Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, January 2009.
Hahn, E.J., Lee, K., Robertson, H.E., Vogel, S., Lee, S.; "Indoor air quality in Bowling Green, Kentucky hospitality venues, 2008," University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, October 15, 2008. Abstract unavailable.
Vainiotalo, S.; Vaananen, V.; Vaaranrinta, R., "Measurement of 16 volatile organic compounds in restaurant air contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke," Environmental Research [Epub ahead of print], September 16, 2008.
Dales, R.; Liu, L.; Wheeler, A.J.; Gilbert, N.L., "Quality of indoor residential air and health," CMAJ 179(2): 147-152, July 15, 2008.
[n.a.], "Changes in Air Pollution in Charleston County: pre/post smoking ordinance, executive summary," [Medical University of South Carolina Hollings Cancer Center (HCC)], July 2008.
Gotz, N.K.; van Tongeren, M.; Wareing, H.; Wallace, L.M.; Semple, S.; MacCalman, L., "Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation," Journal of Public Health [Epub ahead of print], July 23, 2008.
Hahn, E.J.; Lee, K.; Vogel, S.; Robertson, H.E.; Lee, S., "Indoor air quality in bingo halls, Lexington, Kentucky, 2008," University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, July 10, 2008.
Pobutsky, A.; Krupitsky, D.; Kanja, M.L.; Lipsher, J., "Hawai'i air quality monitoring assessment: some effects of Hawai'i's smoke-free work and public places law," Hawaii Medical Journal 67(6): 149-155, June 2008.
Gorini, G.; Moshammer, H.; Sbrogio, L.; Gasparrini, A.; Nebot, M.; Neuberger, M.; Tamang, E.; Lopez, M.J.; Galeone, D.; Serrahima, E., "Italy and Austria before and after study: second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises before and after 2 years from the introduction of the Italian smoking ban," Indoor Air [Epub Ahead of Print], April 21, 2008.
Proescholdbell, S.K.; Foley, K.L.; Johnson, J.; Malek, S.H., "Indoor air quality in prisons before and after implementation of a smoking ban law," Tobacco Control 17(2): 123-127, April 1, 2008.
Carter, C.L.; Carpenter, M.J.; Higbee, C.; Travers, M.; Hyland, A.; Bode, A.; Thacker, S.; Alberg, A., "Fine particulate air pollution in restaurants and bars according to smoking policy in Charleston, South Carolina," Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association 104(4): 82-85, April 2008. Abstract Unavailable
University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute; Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, "Analysis of indoor air quality in restaurants and bars in Eau Claire County," Tobacco Free Partnership of Eau Claire County, March 20, 2008.
Hyland, A.; Travers, M.J.; Dresler, C.; Higbee, C.; Cummings, K.M., "A 32-country comparison of tobacco smoke derived particle levels in indoor public places," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], February 26, 2008.
Hahn, E.J.; Lee, K.; Robertson, H.; Vogel, S.; Lee, S.; Peiper, N.C.; Powell, R.W.; Troutman, A., "Indoor air quality in Louisville: did passage of a comprehensive smoke-free ordinance clear the air?," University of Kentucky, College of Nursing and College of Public Health, February 19, 2008.

Travers, M.J., "Iowa air monitoring study: December 2007 to January 2008," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, February 2008. Abstract Unavailable

Tobacco Program Evaluation Group (TPEG), University of Colorado Denver, "Smoking pollution in gaming venues before and after the Colorado Clean Indoor Air Act," Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, State Tobacco Education & Prevention Partnership (STEPP), January 2008.
Vardavas, C.I.; Kondilis, B.; Travers, M.J.; Petsetaki, E.; Tountas, Y.; Kafatos, A.G., "Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece," BMC Public Health [Epub ahead of print], October 23, 2007.
Valente, P.; Forastiere, F.; Bacosi, A.; Cattani, G.; Di Carlo, S.; Ferri, M.; Figa-Talamanca, I.; Marconi, A.; Paoletti, L.; Perucci, C.; Zuccaro, P., "Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from secondhand smoke in public places before and after the smoking ban, Italy 2005," Tobacco Control 16(5): 312-317, October 2007.
Lee, K.; Hahn, E.J.; Riker, C.; Seithers, P., "Immediate impact of smoke-free laws on indoor air quality," Southern Medical Journal 100(9): 885-889, September 2007.
Travers, M.J., "Casino air monitoring study East Saint Louis, Illinois," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Health Behavior, September 2007.
Higbee, C.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A., "New Mexico air monitoring study: June-August 2007," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Health Behavior, August 2007.
Abstract Unavailable
Lee, K.; Hahn, E.J.; Riker, C.A.; Hoehne, A.; White, A.; Greenwell, D.; Thompson, D., "Secondhand smoke exposure in a rural high school," Journal of School Nursing 23(4): 222-228, August 2007.
Ott, W.; Klepeis, N.; Switzer, P., "Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke," Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [Epub ahead of print], July 18, 2007.
Travers, M.J.; Higbee, C.; Hyland, A., "Fort Wayne Air Monitoring Study May-June 2007," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Health Behavior, July 2007.
Abstract unavailable.
Bolte, G.; Heitmann, D.; Kiranoglu, M.; Schierl, R.; Diemer, J.; Koerner, W.; Fromme, H., "Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in German restaurants, pubs and discotheques," Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [Epub ahead of print], June 13, 2007.
Wilson, N.; Edwards, R.; Maher, A.; Nathe, J.; Jalali, R., "National smokefree law in New Zealand improves air quality inside bars, pubs and restaurants," BMC Public Health 7(1): 85, May 18, 2007.
Klepeis, N.E.; Ott, W.R.; Switzer, P., "Real-time measurement of outdoor tobacco smoke particles," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 57: 522-534, 2007.
Milz, S.; Akbar-Khanzadeh, F.; Ames, A.; Spino, S.; Tex, C.; Lanza, K., "Indoor air quality in restaurants with and without designated smoking rooms: abstract," Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 4(4): 246-252, April 2007.
Repace, J.L.; Johnson, K.C., "Can displacement ventilation
control secondhand ETS?
" AHSRAE IAQ Applications 7(4): 1 , Fall 2006.
Repace, J.L.; Hyde, J.N.; Brugge, D., "Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban," BMC Public Health 6: 266, October 27, 2006.
Repace, J.; Hughes, E.; Benowitz, N., "Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons’ urinary cotinine," Nicotine & Tobacco Research 8(5): 701-711, October 2006.
Johnsson, T.; Tuomi, T.; Riuttala, H.; Hyvarinen, M.; Rothberg, M.; Reijula, K., "Environmental tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants and bars before and after smoking restrictions were introduced," Annals of Occupational Hygiene 50(4): 331-341, 2006.
Hyland, A.; Travers, M.J.; Higbee, C.; Cummings, K.M.; Dresler, C.; Carpenter, C.; Connelly, G., "A 20-country comparison of levels of indoor air pollution in different workplaces," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Health Behavior International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Public Health Practice, July 2006. Abstract Unavailable
Waring, M.S.; Siegel, J.A., "An evaluation of the indoor air quality in bars before and after a smoking ban in Austin, Texas," Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500513 [epub ahead of print], June 28, 2006.
Travers, M.; Homer, M.; Hyland, A.; Sandefer, R., "Wyoming air monitoring study: WYSAC Technical Report No. CHES-513," University of Wyoming, Wyoming Survey & Analysis Center; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, August 2005.
Ellingsen, D.G.; Fladseth, G.; Daae, H.L.; Gjolstad, M.; Kjaerheim, K.; Skogstad, M.; Olsen, R.; Thorud, S.; Molander, P., "Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban," Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8(3): 362-368, 2006.
Laden, F.; Schwartz, J.; Speizer, F.E.; Dockery, D.W., "Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study," American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 173: 667-672, March 15, 2006.
Leavell, N.R.; Muggli, M.E.; Hurt, R.D.; Repace, J., "Blowing smoke: British American Tobacco's air filtration scheme," BMJ 332: 227-229, January 2006.
Repace, J., "Air pollution in Virginia's hospitality industry," Bowie, MD: Repace Associates, January 9, 2006.
[n.a.], "Indoor air quality in bars and restaurants before and after implementation of smoke-free ordinances in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties: technical summary," Minnesota Partnership for Action Against Tobacco (MPAAT), September 15, 2005.
Repace, J., "Displacement ventilation fails to control secondhand smoke: a 3 pub air quality study," Abstract accepted for publication, 15th Annual International Society for Exposure Analysis Conference October 30 - November 3, 2005 Tucson, Arizona.
Repace, J., "Controlling tobacco smoke pollution," ASHRAE IAQ Applications 6(3): 11-15, Summer 2005.
Schoen, L., "Dilution ventilation of tobacco smoke," ASHRAE IAQ Applications 6(3): 1-4, Summer 2005. Abstract Unavailable
Wakefield, M.; Cameron, M.; Inglis, G.; Letcher, T.; Durkin, S., "Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Respiratory Symptoms Among Casino, Club, and Office Workers in Victoria, Australia," Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 47(7):698-703, July 2005.
Travers, M.; Hyland, A., "Indiana Air Monitoring Study, December 2004 - January 2005," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, April 2005.
Hahn, E.; Lee, K.; Okoli, C.T.C.; Troutman, A.; Powell, R.W., "Smoke-free laws and indoor air pollution in Lexington and Louisville," Louisville Medicine 52(9): 391 , February 2005.
Repace, J,., "Estimated Mortality from Secondhand Smoke Among Club, Pub, Tavern, and Bar Workers in New South Wales, Australia," The Cancer Council New South Wales, April 2004.
Travers, M.J.; Cummings, K.M.; Hyland, A.; Repace, J.; Babb, S.; Pechacek, T.; Caraballo, R., "Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air Law --- Western New York, 2003," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(44): 1038-1041, November 12, 2004.
Repace, J., "Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of Delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban," Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 46(9):887-905, September 2004.
Hyland, A.; Travers, M.; Repace J., "7 City Air Monitoring Study (7CAM), March-April 2004," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, May 2004.
Hyland, A.; Travers, M.; Replace J., "Hartford Air Monitoring Study, March-April 2004," Roswell Park Cancer Institute, May 2004.
Glantz, S.A.; Schick, S., "Implications of ASHRAE's Guidance On Ventilation for Smoking-Permitted Areas," ASHRAE Journal, March 2004.
Environmental Protection Agency, "Indoor air facts no. 6: report to Congress on indoor air quality," Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, [n.d.]. Abstract Unavailable
Cains, T.; Cannata, S.; Poulos, R.; Ferson, M.J.; Stewart, B.W., "Designated "no smoking" areas provide from partial to no protection from environmental tobacco smoke," Tobacco Control 13(1): 17-22, March 2004.
Repace, J., "Flying the smoky skies: secondhand smoke exposure of flight attendants," Tobacco Control 13(Suppl. I): i8-i19, March 2004.
Pion, M.; Givel, M.S., "Airport smoking rooms don't work," Tobacco Control 13(Suppl I): i37-i40, March 2004.
Cenko, C.; Pisaniello, D.; Esterman, A., "A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs, and cafes," International Journal of Environmental Health Research 14(1):3-11, February 2004.
Ott, W. R.; Klepeis, N.E.; Switzer, P., "Analytical solutions to compartmental indoor air quality models with application to environmental tobacco smoke concentrations measured in a house," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 53: 918-936, August 2003.
Alevantis, L.; Wagner, J.; Fisk, W.; Sullivan, D.; Faulkner, D.; Gundel, L.; Waldman, J.; Flessel, P., "Designing for smoking rooms," ASHRAE Journal 45(7): 26 , July 2003. Abstract Unavailable
Carrington, J.; Watson, A.F.R.; Gee, I.L., "The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars," Atmospheric Environment 37(23): 3255-3266, July 2003. Abstract Unavailable
Repace, J., "A killer on the loose: an Action on Smoking and Health special investigation into the threat of passive smoking to the U.K. workforce," Action on Smoking and Health (ASH-UK) - http://www.ash.org.uk, April 9, 2003.
Repace, J., "An air quality survey of respirable particles and particulate carcinogens in Delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban," Bowie, MD: Repace Associates, Inc., February 7, 2003.
Repace, J., "An air quality survey of respirable particles and particulate carcinogens in Boston pubs before and after a smoking ban," Bowie, MD: Repace Associates, Inc., [2003]. Abstract Unavailable
Elovitz, K.M.; Gordon, D.; Cashman, D.J., "ETS in restaurants," ASHRAE Journal: 41-47, October 2002. Abstract Unavailable
Mendell, M.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Kreiss, K.; Levin, H.; Alexander, D.; Cain, W.S.; Girman, J.R.; Hines, C.J.; Jensen, P.A.; Milton, D.K.; Rexroat, L.P.; Wallingford, K.M., "Improving the health of workers in indoor environments: priority research needs for a national occupational research agenda," American Journal of Public Health 92(9): 1430-1440, September 2002.
Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W., "Effect of sorption on exposures to organic gases from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)," Proceedings: Indoor Air 2002, 2002.
Junker, M.H.; Danuser, B.; Monn, C.; Koller, T., "Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings," Environmental Health Perspectives 109(10): 1045-1052, October 2001.
Georgiadis P.; Stoikidou M.; Topinka J.; Kaila S.; Gioka M.; Katsouyanni K.; Sram R.; Kyrtopoulos S.A., "Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and polycrylic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke at two locations in Greece," Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 11(3):169-83, May-June 2001.
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, "Protection from second-hand tobacco smoke in Ontario: a review of the evidence regarding best practices," Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto, Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, May 2001. Abstract Unavailable
Bartholomew, A., "What you don't know about secondhand smoke: and why kids are especially vulnerable," Reader's Digest, November 20, 2000. Abstract Unavailable
Repace, J., "Can ventilation control secondhand smoke in the hospitality industry? An analysis of the document "Proceedings of the Workshop on Ventilation Engineering Controls for Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Hospitality Industry", sponsored by the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists," Bowie, MD: Repace Associates, Inc., June 2000.
Spengler, J.D., "Building operations and ETS exposure," Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements 107(Supplement 2): 313-317, May 1999.
Walker, J.C.; Nelson, P.R.; Cain, W.S.; Utell, M.J.; Joyce, M.B.; Morgan, W.T.; Steichen, T.J.; Pritchard, W.S.; Stancill, M.W., "Perceptual and psychophysiological responses of non-smokers to a range of environmental tobacco smoke concentrations," Indoor Air 7: 173-188, 1997. Abstract Unavailable
Ott, W.; Switzer, P.; Robinson, J., "Particle concentrations inside a tavern before and after prohibition of smoking: evaluating the performance of an indoor air quality model," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 46(12): 1120-1134, December 1996.
Lambert, W.E.; Samet, J.M.; Spengler, J.D., "Environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in no-smoking and smoking sections of restaurants," American Journal of Public Health 83(9): 1339-1341, September 1993.
Lofroth, G., "Environmental tobacco smoke: multicomponent analysis and room-to-room distribution in homes," Tobacco Control 2: 222-225, 1993.
Environmental Protection Agency, "Report to Congress on indoor air quality volume II: assessment and control of indoor air pollution," Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, August 1989. Abstract Unavailable
Environmental Protection Agency, "Report to Congress on indoor air quality volume III: indoor air pollution research needs statement," Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, August 1989. Abstract Unavailable
Committee on Airliner Cabin Air Quality, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Services, National Research Council, "The airliner cabin environment: air quality and safety," Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986. Abstract Unavailable
Repace, J.L.; Lowrey, A.H., "An indoor air quality standard for ambient tobacco smoke based on carcinogenic risk," New York State Journal of Medicine 85: 381-383, July 1985. Abstract Unavailable
Repace, J.L.; Lowrey, A.H., "Tobacco smoke, ventilation, and indoor air quality," ASHRAE Transactions 88: 895-914, 1982. Abstract Unavailable

Tobacco Industry Influence
Drope, J.; Bialous, S.A.; Glantz, S.A., "Tobacco industry efforts to present ventilation as an alternative to smoke-free environments in North America," Tobacco Control 13(Suppl I): i41-i47, March 2004.
Neilsen, K.; Glantz, S.A., "A tobacco industry study of airline cabin air quality: dropping inconvenient findings," Tobacco Control 13(Suppl. I): i20-i29, March 2004.
Aguinaga Bialous, S.; Glantz, S.A., "ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards," Tobacco Control 11(4): 315-328, December 2002.
Barnes, D.E.; Bero, L.A., "Industry-funded research and conflict of interest: an analysis of research sponsored by the tobacco industry through the Center for Indoor Air Research," Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 21(3): 515-542, Fall, 1996.
Drope, J.; Chapman, S., "Tobacco industry efforts at discrediting scientific knowledge of environmental tobacco smoke: a review of internal industry documents," Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 55: 588-594, 2001.
Dearlove, J.V.; Bialous, S.A.; Glantz, S.A., "Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places," Tobacco Control 11: 94-104, 2002.