This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Sousan, S.; Mooring, R.; Fresquez, S.; Park, Y.M.; Coombs, V.; Bertges, N.; Thomas, L.; Gold, E.; Gogineni, A.; Tiet, A.; Pender, J.; Soule, E.K., “Use of real-time monitors to evaluate the potential exposure of secondhand electronic cigarette particulate matter inside vehicles,” Environmental Pollution 336: 122480, November 1, 2023.

Charoenca, N.; Hamann, S.L.; Kungskulniti, N.; Sangchai, N.; Osot, R.; Kasemsup, V.; Ruangkanchanasetr, S.; Jongkhajornpong, P., “Air pollution inside vehicles: making a bad situation worse,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20(21): 6970, October 25, 2023.

Soule, E.K.; Sousan, S.; Pender, J.; Thomas, L.; Gold, E.; Fresquez, S.; Mooring, R.; Coombs, V.; Gogineni, A.; Tiet, A., “Secondhand electronic cigarette aerosol in vehicles impacts indoor air quality,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 250: 110889, September 1, 2023.

Soule, E.K.; Sousan, S.; Pender, J.; et al., “Electronic cigarette use and cigarette smoking in vehicles among adults who use electronic cigarettes and cigarettes in the USA,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], July 14, 2023.

Continente, X.; Henderson, E.; López-González, L.; Fernández, E.; Tigova, O.; Semple, S.; O’Donnell, R.; Navas-Acién, A.; Cortés-Francisco, N.; Ramírez, N.; Dobson, R.; López, M.J., “Exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke in private vehicles: measurements in air and dust samples,” Environmental Research [Online ahead of print], July 18, 2023.

Merianos, A.L.; Stone, T.; Jandarov, R.A.; Mahabee-Gittens, E.M.; Choi, K., “Sources of tobacco smoke exposure and their associations with serum cotinine levels among U.S. children and adolescent,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], December 26, 2022.

Pitten, L.; Brüggmann, D.; Dröge, J.; Braun, M.; Groneberg, D.A., “TAPaC-tobacco-associated particulate matter emissions inside a car cabin: establishment of a new measuring platform,” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 17(1): 17, August 24, 2022.

Pelekanakis, A.; O’Loughlin, J.L.; Maximova, K.; Montreuil, A.; Kalubi, J.; Dugas, E.N.; Sylvestre, M.P., “Associations of quantity smoked and socioeconomic status with smoke-free homes and cars among daily smokers,” Health Education & Behavior 49(3): 488-496, June 2022.

Laverty, A.A.; Been, J.V., “Protecting children from tobacco-related harm in private vehicles,” Lancet Public Health 6(8): e539-e540, August 2021.

Mackay, D.F.; Turner, S.W.; Semple, S.E.; Dick, S.; Pell, J.P., “Associations between smoke-free vehicle legislation and childhood admissions to hospital for asthma in Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis of whole-population data,” Lancet [Online ahead of print] July 15, 2021.

Yamato, H.; Jiang, Y.; Tomonaga, R.; Fujimoto, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Hirano, T., “Secondhand smoke exposure in a car,” Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi [Online ahead of print], June 27, 2021.

Mantey, D.S.; Omega-Njemnobi, O.; Barroso, C.S., “Secondhand smoke exposure at home and/or in a vehicle: differences between urban and non-urban adolescents in the United States, from 2015 to 2018,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], November 6, 2020.

Walton, K.; Gentzke, A.S.; Murphy-Hoefer, R.; Kenemer, B.; Neff, L.J., “Exposure to secondhand smoke in homes and vehicles among US youths, United States, 2011–2019,” Preventing Chronic Disease 17200107, September 10, 2020.

Nogueira, S.O.; Tigova, O.; Driezen, P.; Fu, M.; Kyriakos, C.N.; Zatoński, M.; Mons, U.; Quah, A.C.K.; Demjén, T.; Trofor, A.C.; Przewoźniak, K.; Katsaounou, P.A.; Fong, G.T.; Vardavas, C.I.; Fernández, E., “Do smokers want to protect non-smokers from the harms of second-hand smoke in cars? Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys,” European Journal of Public Health 30(Supplement_3): iii108-iii112, July 1, 2020.

Faber, T.; Sheikh, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Reiss, I.K.; Been, J.V., “Investigating the effect of England’s smoke-free private vehicle regulation on changes in tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory disease in children: a quasi-experimental study,” Lancet Public Health [Online ahead of print], September 14, 2019.

Agaku, I.; Odani, S.; King, B.A.; Brian, A., “Prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke exposure in the home and in a vehicle among youth in the United States,” Preventive Medicine 126: 105745, September 2019.

Drehmer, J.E.; Nabi-Burza, E.; Hipple Walters, B.; Ossip, D.J.; Levy, D.E.; Rigotti, N.A.; Klein, J.D.; Winickoff, J.P., “Parental smoking and e-cigarette use in homes and cars,” Pediatrics 143(4): e20183249, 2019.

Gentzke, A.S.; Homa, D.M.; Kenemer, J.B.; Gomez, Y.; King, B.A., “Rules to prohibit the use of electronic vapor products inside homes and personal vehicles among adults in the U.S., 2017,” Preventive Medicine 114: 47-53, September 2018.

Foley, K.; Ferencz, L.; Meghea, C.; Abram, Z.; Pénzes, M.; Fogarasi-Grenczer, A.; Balazs, P.; Schmidt, L., “Home- and car-based rules in foster care settings to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke: before and after Romanian National Clean Air Legislation,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(8): 1631, August 2, 2018.

Jain, R.B., “Rates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoker adolescents and adults,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research [Online ahead of print], April 7, 2018.

Parks, M.J.; Kingsbury, J.H.; Boyle, R.G.; Evered, S., “Smoke-free rules in homes and cars among smokers and nonsmokers in Minnesota,” Preventing Chronic Disease 15: 32, March 15, 2018.

McMillen, R.; Wilson, K.; Tanski, S.; Klein, J.D.; Winickoff, J.P., “Adult attitudes and practices regarding smoking restrictions and child tobacco smoke exposure: 2000 to 2015,” Pediatrics 141(Suppl. 1): S21-S28, January 2018.

Patel, M.; Thai, C.L.; Meng, Y.Y.; Kuo, T.; Zheng, H.; Dietsch, B.; McCarthy, W.J., “Smoke-free car legislation and student exposure to smoking,” Pediatrics 141(Suppl 1):S40-S50, January 2018.

Ossip, D.J.; Johnson, T.; Assibey-Mensah, V.; Wang, S.; McLaren, D.; Calabro, K.; Prokhorov, A.V.; McIntosh, S., “Smoke-free home and vehicle policies among community college smokers,” Health Education and Behavior [Online ahead of print], December 4, 2017.

Montreuil, A.; Hanusaik, N.; Cantinotti, M.; Leclerc, B.S.; Kestens, Y.; Tremblay, M.; Cohen, J.; McGrath, J.; Datta, G.D.; O’Loughlin, J.L., “Social disparities in children’s exposure to secondhand smoke in privately owned vehicles,” Tobacco Control 26(6): 663-668, November 2017.

Díez-Izquierdo, A.; Lidón-Moyano, C.; Martín-Sánchez, J.C.; Matilla-Santander, N.; Cassanello-Peñarroya, P.; Balaguer, A.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.M., “Smoke-free homes and attitudes towards banning smoking in vehicles carrying children in Spain,” Environmental Research 158: 590-597, October 2017.

Bohac, D.L.; Waldhart, E.; Zhou, Z.; Hewett, M., “Personal vehicle secondhand smoke exposure for various ventilation modes,” Tobacco Regulatory Science 3(4): 492-503, October 2017.

Kruger, J.; Jama, A.; Kegler, M.; Baker Holmes, C.; Hu, S.; King, B., “Smoke-free rules and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles among U.S. adults – National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health13(11): 1048, October 26, 2016.

Elton-Marshall, T.; Leatherdale, S.T.; Driezen, P.; Azagba, S.; Burkhalter, R., “Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?,”Preventive Medicine 78: 59-64, September 2015.

Montreuil, A.; Tremblay, M.; Cantinotti, M.; Leclerc, B.S.; Lasnier, B.; Cohen, J.; McGrath, J.; O’Loughlin, J., “Frequency and risk factors related to smoking in cars with children present,” Canadian Journal of Public Health 106(6): e369-e74, June 24, 2015.

Zhang, X.; Martinez-Donate, A.; Rhoads, N., “Parental practices and attitudes related to smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor playgrounds in US households with underage children and smokers, 2010-2011,” Preventing Chronic Disease 12: E96, June 18, 2015.

Kruger, J.; Jama, A.; Homa, D.M.; Babb, S.D.; King, B.A., “Smoke-free home and vehicle rules by tobacco use status among U.S. adults,”Preventative Medicine [Online ahead of print], June 16, 2015.

Raoof, S.A.; Agaku, I.T.; Vardavas, C.I., “A systematic review of secondhand smoke exposure in a car: attributable changes in atmospheric and biological markers,” Chronic Respiratory Disease [Online ahead of print], March 10, 2015.

Cheng, K.; Okechukwu, C.A.; McMillen, R.; Glantz, S.A., “Association between clean indoor air laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars,” Tobacco Control 24(2): 168-174, March 2015.

Padilla, M.; Berg, C.J.; Schauer, G.L.; Lang, D.L.; Kegler, M.C., “Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample,” Health Education Research 30(1): 179-191, February 2015.

Agaku, I.T.; Odukoya, O.O.; Olufajo, O.; Filippidis, F.T.; Vardavas, C.I., “Support for smoke-free cars when children are present: a secondary analysis of 164,819 U.S. adults in 2010/2011,” European Journal of Pediatrics 173(11): 1459-1466, November 2014.

Rowa-Dewar, N.; Amos, A.; Cunningham-Burley, S., Children’s perspectives on how parents protect them from secondhand smoke in their homes and cars in socioeconomically contrasting communities: a qualitative study,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(11): 1429-1435, November 2014.

Hilton, S.; Wood, K.; Bain, J., “Newsprint coverage of smoking in cars carrying children: a case study of public and scientific opinion driving the policy debate,” BMC Public Health 14(1): 1116, October 29, 2014.

Stotts, A.L.; Northrup, T.F.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Pedroza, C.; Blackwell, S.C., Families at risk: home and car smoking among pregnant women attending a low-income, urban prenatal clinic,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(7): 1020-1025, July 2014.

Nguyen, K.H.; King, B.A.; Dube, S.R.. “Association between current asthma and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles among adults living in four US states,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], May 2, 2014.

Jones, I.A.; St. Helen, G.; Meyers, M.J.; Dempsey, D.A.; Havel, C.; Jacob, III, P.; Northcross, A.; Hammond, S.K.; Benowitz, N.L., “Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles,” Tobacco Control 23(1): 51-57, January 2014.

Northcross, A.L.; Trinh, M.; Kim, J.; Jones, I.A.; Meyers, M.J.; Dempsey, D.D.; Benowitz, N.L.; Hammond, S.K., “Particulate mass and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure from secondhand smoke in the back seat of a vehicle,” Tobacco Control 23(1): 14-20, January 2014.

McIntire, R.K.; Macy, J.T.; Seo, D.C.; Nelson, A.A.; Kolbe, L.J., “Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(6): 663-671, June 2014.

Murphy-Hoefer, R.; Madden, P.; Maines, D.; Coles, C., “Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules in Maine before and after passage of a smoke-free vehicle law, 2007-2010,” Preventing Chronic Disease 11: E08, 2014.

McIntire, R.K.; Macy, J.T.; Seo, D.C.; Nelson, A.A.; Kolbe, L.J., “Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and in rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], December 24, 2013.

Rowa-Dewar, N.; Amos, A.; Cunningham-Burley, S., “Children’s resistance to parents’ smoking in the home and car: a qualitative study,”Addiction [Online ahead of print], December 4, 2013.

Woods, P., “Protect children from second-hand smoke in cars,” Nursing Times 109(44): 11, November 6, 2013.

Healey, B.; Hoek, J.; Wilson, N.; Thomson, G., “Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012),” Tobacco Control[Online ahead of print], September 17, 2013.

Glover, M.; Hadwen, G.; Chelimo, C.; Scragg, R.; Bullen, C.; Gentles, D.; Nosa, V.; McCool, J., “Parent versus child reporting of tobacco smoke exposure at home and in the car,” New Zealand Medical Journal126(1375): 37-47, May 31, 2013.

King, B.A.; Dube, S.R.; Homa, D.M., “Smoke-free rules and secondhand smoke exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults, 2009-2010,” Preventing Chronic Disease 10: E79, May 16, 2013.

Matt, G.E.; Fortmann, A.L.; Quintana, P.J.E.; Zakarian, J.M.; Romero, R.A.; Chatfield, D.A.; Hoh, E.; Hovell, M.F., “Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California,” Tobacco Control 22(3): 201-207, May 2013.

Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Blanch, C.; Fu, M.; Gallus, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Fernandez, E., “Do smoke-free policies in work and public places increase smoking in private venues?,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], April 25, 2013.

Gilroy, I.; Donnelly, N.; Matthews, W.; Doherty, K.; Conlon, G.; Clarke, A.T.; Daly, L.; Kelleher, C.; Fitzpatrick, P., “Smoking in vehicles is lower than mobile telephone use while driving, but is socially patterned,” Irish Medical Journal 106(4): 118-120, April 2013.

Quintana, P.J.; Matt, G.E.; Chatfield, D.; Zakarian, J.M.; Fortmann, A.L.; Hoh, E., “Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], March 4, 2013.

Patel, V.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., “Objective measurement of area differences in ‘private’ smoking behaviour: observing smoking in vehicles,” Tobacco Control 22(2): 130-135, March 2013.

Patel, V.; Nowostawski, M.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N.; Medlin, H., “Developing a smartphone ‘app’ for public health research: the example of measuring observed smoking in vehicles,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health [Online ahead of print], February 26, 2013.

Healey, B.; Edwards, R.; Wilson, N.; Thomson, G.; Hoek, J.; Taylor, S., “The important persisting problem of smoking in cars with children: new data from a multi-year national survey of young people,” New Zealand Medical Journal 126(1369): 86-89, February 15, 2013.

Nguyen, H.V., “Do smoke-free car laws work? Evidence from a quasi-experiment,” Journal of Health Economics 32(1): 138-148, January 2013.

Vardavas, C.I.; Anagnostopoulos, N.; Kougias, M.; Evangelopoulou, V.; Connolly, G.N.; Behrakis, P.K. , “Acute pulmonary effects of sidestream secondhand smoke at simulated car concentrations,” Xenobiotica [Online ahead of print], December 4, 2012.

Nabi-Burza, E.; Regan, S.; Drehmer, J.; Ossip, D.; Rigotti, N.; Hipple, B.; Dempsey, J.; Hall, N.; Friebely, J.; Weiley, V.; Winickoff, J.P., “Parents smoking in their cars with children present,” Pediatrics [Online ahead of print], November 12, 2012.

Semple, S.; Apsley, A.; Galea, K.S.; MacCalman, L. Friel, B.; Snelgrove, V., “Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children’s potential exposure during typical journey conditions,” Tobacco Control 21(6): 578-583, November 1, 2012.

King, B.A.; Dube, S.R.; Tynan, M.A., “Secondhand smoke exposure in cars among middle and high school students: United States, 2000–2009,” Pediatrics [Online ahead of print], February 6, 2012.

Cao, Y.; Frey, H.C., “Modeling of human exposure to in-vehicle PM(2.5) from environmental tobacco smoke,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 18(3): 608-626, January 1, 2012.

Temple, B.; Johnson, J., “Provision of smoke-free homes and vehicles for kindergarten children: associated factors,” Journal of Pediatric Nursing26(6):e69-78, December 2011.

[n.a.], “Smoking in vehicles,” British Medical Association (BMA) Board of Science, November 2011.

Curto, A.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Fernandez, E., “Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open Access 1:e1-7, 2011.

Cartmell, K.B.; Miner, C.; Carpenter, M.J.; Vitoc, C.S.; Biggers, S.; Onicescu, G.; Nickerson, B.C.; Hill, E.G.; Alberg, A.J., “Secondhand smoke exposure in young people and parental rules against smoking at home and in the car,” Public Health Reports 126(4): 575-582, July/August, 2011.

Cao, Y.; Frey, H.C., “Assessment of interindividual and geographic variability in human exposure to fine particulate matter in environmental tobacco smoke,” Risk Analysis [Online ahead of print], October 29, 2010.

Fortmann, A.L.: Romero, R.A.; Sklar, M.; Pham, V.; Zakarian, J.; Quintada, P.J.E.; Chatfield, D.; Matt, G.E., ” Residual tobacco smoke in used cars: futile efforts and persistent pollutants,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 12(10): 1029-1036, October 2010.

Thomson, G.; Hudson, S.; Wilson, N.; Edwards, R., “A qualitative case study of policy maker views about the protection of children from smoking in cars,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 12(2): 970-977, September 2010.

Hitchman, S.C.; Fong, G.T.; Zanna, M.P.; Hyland, A.; Bansal-Travers, M., “Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey,” European Journal of Public Health [Online ahead of print], July 14, 2010.

Liu, S.; Zhu, Y., “A case study of exposure to ultrafine particles from secondhand tobacco smoke in an automobile,” Indoor Air [Online ahead of print], May 11, 2010.

Hitchman, S.C.; Fong, G.T.; Borland, R.; Hyland, A., “Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 12(4): 374-380, April 2010.

Tapp, D.; Thomson, G., “Smokefree cars in New Zealand: rapid research among stakeholders on attitudes and future directions, New Zealand Medical Journal 122(1303): 54-66, September 25, 2009.

Kabir, Z.; Manning, P.J.; Holohan, J.; Keogan, S.; Goodman, P.G.; Clancy, L., “Second hand smoke exposure in cars and respiratory health effects in children,” European Respiratory Journal 34(3): 629-633, September 2009.

Jones, M.R.; Navas-Acien, A.; Yuan, J.; Breysse, P.N., “Secondhand tobacco smoke concentrations in motor vehicles,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], August 25, 2009.

Sendzik, T.; Fong, G.T.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A., “An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 11(6): 627-634, June 2009.

Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., “Public attitudes to laws for smokefree private vehicles: a brief review,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], December 3, 2008.

Matt, G.E.; Quintana, P.J.; Hovell, M.F.; Chatfield, D.; Ma, D.S.; Romero, R.; Uribe, A., “Residual tobacco smoke pollution in used cars for sale: air, dust, and surfaces,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 10(9): 1467-1475, September 2008.

Leatherdale, S.T.; Smith, P.; Ahmed, R., “Youth exposure to smoking in the home and in cars: how often does it happen and what do youth think about it?,” Tobacco Control 17(2): 86-92, April 1, 2008.

Crozier Kegler, M.; Escoffery, C.; Butler, S., “A qualitative study on establishing and enforcing smoking rules in family cars,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10(3): 493-497, March 2008.

Sendzik, T.; Fong, G.T.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A., “An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars,” Toronto, ON: Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, March 2008.

Freeman, B.; Chapman, S.; Storey, P., “Banning smoking in cars carrying children: an analytical history of a public health advocacy campaign,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 32(1): 60-65, 2008.

Sly, P.D.; Deverell, M.; Kusel, M.M.; Holt, P.G., “Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in cars increases the risk of persistent wheeze in adolescents,” Medical Journal of Australia 186(6): 322, March 19, 2007.

Rees, V.W.; Connolly, G., “Measuring air quality to protect children from secondhand smoke in cars,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine31(5): 363-368, November 2006.

Edwards, R.; Wilson, N.; Pierse, N., “Highly hazardous air quality associated with smoking in cars: New Zealand pilot study,” New Zealand Medical Journal 119(1244), October 2006.

Martin, J.; George, R.; Andrews, K.; Barr, P.; Bicknell, D.; Insull, E.; Knox, C.; Liu, J.; Naqshband, M.; Romeril, K.; Wong, D.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., “Observed smoking in cars: a method and differences by socioeconomic area,” Tobacco Control 15(5): 409-411, October 2006.

Halterman, J.S.; Fagnano, M.; Conn, K.M.; Szilagyi, P.G., “Do parents of urban children with persistent asthma ban smoking in their homes and cars?,” Ambulatory Pediatrics 6(2): 115-119, March 2006.

Thomson, G.; Wilson, N.; Howden-Chapman, P., “Attitudes to, and knowledge of, secondhand smoke in New Zealand homes and cars,” New Zealand Medical Journal 118(1213), April 15, 2005.