This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

El-Kaassamani, M.; Yen, M.; Talih, S.; El-Hellani, A., “Analysis of mainstream emissions, secondhand emissions and the environmental impact of IQOS waste: a systematic review on IQOS that accounts for data source,” Tobacco Control 33(1): 93-102, January 2024.

Sy, D.K., “Tobacco industry accountability for marine pollution: country and global estimates,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], November 28, 2023.

Pierobon, J.M.; Leatherman, S.P., “Smoke-free beaches in Florida,” Shore and Beach 91(1): 60-63, Winter 2023.

Ebuete, A.W.; Wodu, D.P.; Puanoni, N.I., “Cigarette butts; a little leaven that leaveneth the whole lump,” Applied Research and Innovation (ARI) 1(2): 1-9, October 4, 2023.

Green, D.S.; Boots, B.; Olah-Kovacs, B.; Palma-Diogo, D., “Disposable e-cigarettes and cigarette butts alter the physiology of an aquatic plant Lemna minor (Lemnaceae),” Science of the Total Environment 892: 164457, September 20, 2023.

Shah, G.; Bhatt, U.; Soni, V., “Cigarette: an unsung anthropogenic evil in the environment,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 30(21): 59151-59162, May 2023.

Novotny, T.E.; Hamzai, L., ”Cellulose acetate cigarette filter is hazardous to human health,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], April 18, 2023.

Vanapalli, K.R.; Sharma, H.B.; Anand, S.; Ranjan, V.P.; Singh, H.; Dubey, B.K.; Mohanty B., “Cigarettes butt littering: The story of the world’s most littered item from the perspective of pollution, remedial actions, and policy measures,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 453: 131387, April 7, 2023.

Morphett, K.; Hyland, A.; Sellars, D.; Gartner, C., “The environmental impact of tobacco products: time to increase awareness and action,” Addiction 118(3): 396-398, March 2023.

Patel, M.; Cuccia, A.F.; Folger, S.; Benson, A.F.; Vallone, D.; Novotny, T.E., “Support for cigarette filter waste policies among US adults,” Tobacco Control 32(1): 118-120, January 2023.

Gelino, B.W.; Salzer, A.R.; Harsin, J.D.; Naudé, G.P.; Gilroy, S.P.; Reed, D.D., “Tobacco-free policy reduces combustible tobacco byproduct on a large university campus,” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis [Online ahead of print], December 5, 2022.

Araújo, M.C.B.; Costa, M.F.; Silva-Cavalcanti, J.S.; Duarte, A.C.; Reis, V.; Rocha-Santos, T.A.; da Costa, J.P.; Girão, V., “Different faces of cigarette butts, the most abundant beach litter worldwide,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 29(32): 48926-48936, July 2022.

Pervez, R.; Lai, Z., “Spatio-temporal variations of litter on Qingdao tourist beaches in China,” Environmental Pollution 303: 119060, June 2022.

Soleimani, F.; Dobaradaran, S.; De-la-Torre, G.E.; Schmidt, T.C.; Saeedi, R., “Content of toxic components of cigarette, cigarette smoke vs cigarette butts: a comprehensive systematic review,” Science of the Total Environment 813: 152667, March 20, 2022.

Seitz, C.M.; Reese, R.F.; Holden, C.J., “Park enjoyment and secondhand exposure to substance use and litter: a crowd-sourced vignette study,” Recreation, Parks, and Tourism in Public Health 6: 21-33, 2022.

Shen, M.; Li, Y.; Song, B.; Zhou, C.; Gong, J.; Zeng, G., “Smoked cigarette butts: unignorable source for environmental microplastic fibers,” Science of the Total Environment 791: 148384, October 15, 2021.

Santos-Echeandía, J.; Zéler, A.; Gago, J.; Lacroix, C., “The role of cigarette butts as vectors of metals in the marine environment: could it cause bioaccumulation in oysters?,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 416: 125816, August 15, 2021.

de Ramos, B.; Alencar, M.V.; Rodrigues, F.L.; Lacerda, A.L.F.; Proietti, M.C., “Spatio-temporal characterization of litter at a touristic sandy beach in South Brazil,” Environmental Pollution 280: 116927, July 1, 2021.

Belzagui, F.; Buscio, V.; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, C.; Vilaseca, M., “Cigarette butts as a microfiber source with a microplastic level of concern,” Science of the Total Environment 762: 144165, March 25, 2021.

Belzagui, F.; Buscio, V.; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, C.; Vilaseca, M., “Cigarette butts as a microfiber source with a microplastic level of concern,” Science of the Total Environment 762: 144165, March 2021.

Venugopal, P.D.; Hanna, S.K.; Gagliano, G.G.; Chang, H.W., “No butts on the beach: aquatic toxicity of cigarette butt leachate chemicals,” Tobacco Regulatory Science 7(1): 17-30, January 1, 2021.

Epperson, A.E.; Novotny, T.E.; Halpern-Felsher, B., “Perceptions about the impact of cigarette filters on the environment and smoking-related behaviors,” Journal of Adolescent Health [Online ahead of print], December 4, 2020.

Green, D.S.; Kregting, L.; Boots, B., “Smoked cigarette butt leachate impacts survival and behaviour of freshwater invertebrates,” Environmental Pollution 266(Pt 3): 115286, November 2020.

Schneider, J.E.; Scheibling, C.A.; Peterson, N.A.; Granados, P.S.; Fulton, L.; Novotny, T., “Online simulation model to estimate the total costs of tobacco product waste in large U.S. cities,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(13): 4705, June 30, 2020.

Kurmus, H.; Mohajerani, A., “The toxicity and valorization options of cigarette butts,” Waste Management 104: 104-118, March 1, 2020.

Hoek, J.; Gendall, P.; Blank, M.; Robertson, L.; Marsh, L., “Butting out: an analysis of support for measures to address tobacco product waste,” Tobacco Control 29(2): 131-137, March 2020.

Curtis, C.; Novotny, T.E.; Lee, K.; Freiberg, M.; McLaughlin, I.; “Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a model tobacco waste act,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], March 1, 2016.

Krause, M.J.; Townsend, T.G., “Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes,” Waste Management [Online ahead of print], March 4, 2015.

Bayer, R.; Bachynski, K.E., “Analysis and commentary: banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization,” Health Affairs 32(7): 1291-1298, July 2013.

Lee, J.G.L.; Ranney, L.M.; Goldstein, A.O., “Cigarette butts near building entrances: what is the impact of smoke-free college campus policies?,”Tobacco Control 22(2): 107-112, March 2013.

Patel, V.; Thomson, G.W.; Wilson, N., “Cigarette butt littering in city streets: a new methodology for studying and results,” Tobacco Control22(1): 59-62, January 1, 2013.

Johns, M.; Coady, M.H.; Chan, C.A.; Farley, S.M.; Kansagra, S.M., “Evaluating New York City’s smoke-free parks and beaches law: a critical multiplist approach to assessing behavioral impact,” American Journal of Community Psychology [Online ahead of print], May 26, 2012.

Seitz, C.M.; Strack, R.W.; Orsini, M.M.; Rosario, C.; Haugh, C.; Rice, R.; Wyrick, D.L.; Wagner, L., “Quantifying littered cigarette butts to measure effectiveness of smoking bans to building perimeters,” Journal of American College Health 60(4): 331-334, February 29, 2012.

Ariza, E.; Leatherman, S.P., “No-smoking policies and their outcomes on U.S. beaches,” Journal of Coastal Research 28(1A Supplement): 143–147, 2012.

[n.a.], “Tracking trash: 25 years of action for the ocean — 2011 report,” Ocean Conservancy, 2011.

Healton, C.G.; Cummings, K.M.; O’Connor, R.J., “Butt really? The environmental impact of cigarettes,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i1, April 21, 2011.

Smith, E.A.; Novotny, T.E., “Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1):i2-i9, April 2011.

Harris, B., “The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’,” Tobacco Control20(Suppl 1):i10-i16, April 2011.

Novotny, T.E.; Hardin, S.N.; Hovda, L.R.; Novotny, D.J.; McLean, M.K.; Khan, S., “Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals,” Tobacco Control 2011(Suppl 1): i17-i20, April 2011.

Sawdey, M.; Lindsay, R.P.; Novotny, T.E., “Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i21-i24, April 2011.

Slaughter, E.; Gersberg, R.M.; Watanabe, K.; Rudolph, J.; Stransky, C.; Novotny, T.E., “Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i25-i29, April 2011.

Moerman, J.W.; Potts, G.E., “Analysis of metals leached from smoked cigarette litter,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i30 – i35, April 2011.

Schneider, J.E.; Peterson, N.A.; Kiss, N.; Ebeid, O.; Doyle, A.S., “Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs,” Tobacco Control20(Suppl 1): i36-i41, April 2011.

Marah, M.; Novotny, T.E., “Geographic patterns of cigarette butt waste in the urban environment,” Tobacco Control 20 (Suppl 1): i42-i44, April 21, 2011.

Barnes, R.L., “Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste,” Tobacco Control 20 (Suppl1): i45-i48, 2011.

Novotny, T.E.; Lum, K.; Smith, E.; Wang, V.; Barnes, R., “Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(5): 1691-1705, May 2009.

Ariza, E.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sarda, R., “Seasonal evolution of beach waste and litter during the bathing season on the Catalan coast,” Waste Management 28(12): 2604-2613, December 2008.

Santosa, I.R.; Friedricha, A.C.; Wallner-Kersanachb, M., “Influence of socio-economic characteristics of beach users on litter generation,”Ocean & Coastal Management 48(9&10): 742-752, October 25, 2005.

Centers for Disease Control, “Ingestion of cigarettes and cigarette butts by children – Rhode Island, January 1994-July 1996,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 277(10):785-786, 1997.