This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Belzagui, F.; Buscio, V.; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, C.; Vilaseca, M., “Cigarette butts as a microfiber source with a microplastic level of concern,” Science of the Total Environment 762: 144165, March 25, 2021.

Belzagui, F.; Buscio, V.; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, C.; Vilaseca, M., “Cigarette butts as a microfiber source with a microplastic level of concern,” Science of the Total Environment 762: 144165, March 2021.

Venugopal, P.D.; Hanna, S.K.; Gagliano, G.G.; Chang, H.W., “No butts on the beach: aquatic toxicity of cigarette butt leachate chemicals,” Tobacco Regulatory Science 7(1): 17-30, January 1, 2021.

Epperson, A.E.; Novotny, T.E.; Halpern-Felsher, B., “Perceptions about the impact of cigarette filters on the environment and smoking-related behaviors,” Journal of Adolescent Health [Epub ahead of print], December 4, 2020.

Green, D.S.; Kregting, L.; Boots, B., “Smoked cigarette butt leachate impacts survival and behaviour of freshwater invertebrates,” Environmental Pollution 266(Pt 3): 115286, November 2020.

Schneider, J.E.; Scheibling, C.A.; Peterson, N.A.; Granados, P.S.; Fulton, L.; Novotny, T., “Online simulation model to estimate the total costs of tobacco product waste in large U.S. cities,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(13): 4705, June 30, 2020.

Kurmus, H.; Mohajerani, A., “The toxicity and valorization options of cigarette butts,” Waste Management 104: 104-118, March 1, 2020.

Hoek, J.; Gendall, P.; Blank, M.; Robertson, L.; Marsh, L., “Butting out: an analysis of support for measures to address tobacco product waste,” Tobacco Control 29(2): 131-137, March 2020.

Curtis, C.; Novotny, T.E.; Lee, K.; Freiberg, M.; McLaughlin, I.; “Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a model tobacco waste act,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], March 1, 2016.

Krause, M.J.; Townsend, T.G., “Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes,” Waste Management [Epub ahead of print], March 4, 2015.

Bayer, R.; Bachynski, K.E., “Analysis and commentary: banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization,” Health Affairs 32(7): 1291-1298, July 2013.

Lee, J.G.L.; Ranney, L.M.; Goldstein, A.O., “Cigarette butts near building entrances: what is the impact of smoke-free college campus policies?,”Tobacco Control 22(2): 107-112, March 2013.

Patel, V.; Thomson, G.W.; Wilson, N., “Cigarette butt littering in city streets: a new methodology for studying and results,” Tobacco Control22(1): 59-62, January 1, 2013.

Johns, M.; Coady, M.H.; Chan, C.A.; Farley, S.M.; Kansagra, S.M., “Evaluating New York City’s smoke-free parks and beaches law: a critical multiplist approach to assessing behavioral impact,” American Journal of Community Psychology [Epub ahead print], May 26, 2012.

Seitz, C.M.; Strack, R.W.; Orsini, M.M.; Rosario, C.; Haugh, C.; Rice, R.; Wyrick, D.L.; Wagner, L., “Quantifying littered cigarette butts to measure effectiveness of smoking bans to building perimeters,” Journal of American College Health 60(4): 331-334, February 29, 2012.

Ariza, E.; Leatherman, S.P., “No-smoking policies and their outcomes on U.S. beaches,” Journal of Coastal Research 28(1A Supplement): 143–147, 2012.

[n.a.], “Tracking trash: 25 years of action for the ocean — 2011 report,” Ocean Conservancy, 2011.

Healton, C.G.; Cummings, K.M.; O’Connor, R.J., “Butt really? The environmental impact of cigarettes,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i1, April 21, 2011.

Smith, E.A.; Novotny, T.E., “Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1):i2-i9, April 2011.

Harris, B., “The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’,” Tobacco Control20(Suppl 1):i10-i16, April 2011.

Novotny, T.E.; Hardin, S.N.; Hovda, L.R.; Novotny, D.J.; McLean, M.K.; Khan, S., “Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals,” Tobacco Control 2011(Suppl 1): i17-i20, April 2011.

Sawdey, M.; Lindsay, R.P.; Novotny, T.E., “Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i21-i24, April 2011.

Slaughter, E.; Gersberg, R.M.; Watanabe, K.; Rudolph, J.; Stransky, C.; Novotny, T.E., “Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i25-i29, April 2011.

Moerman, J.W.; Potts, G.E., “Analysis of metals leached from smoked cigarette litter,” Tobacco Control 20(Suppl 1): i30 – i35, April 2011.

Schneider, J.E.; Peterson, N.A.; Kiss, N.; Ebeid, O.; Doyle, A.S., “Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs,” Tobacco Control20(Suppl 1): i36-i41, April 2011.

Marah, M.; Novotny, T.E., “Geographic patterns of cigarette butt waste in the urban environment,” Tobacco Control 20 (Suppl 1): i42-i44, April 21, 2011.

Barnes, R.L., “Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste,” Tobacco Control 20 (Suppl1): i45-i48, 2011.

Novotny, T.E.; Lum, K.; Smith, E.; Wang, V.; Barnes, R., “Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(5): 1691-1705, May 2009.

Ariza, E.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sarda, R., “Seasonal evolution of beach waste and litter during the bathing season on the Catalan coast,” Waste Management 28(12): 2604-2613, December 2008.

Santosa, I.R.; Friedricha, A.C.; Wallner-Kersanachb, M., “Influence of socio-economic characteristics of beach users on litter generation,”Ocean & Coastal Management 48(9&10): 742-752, October 25, 2005.

Centers for Disease Control, “Ingestion of cigarettes and cigarette butts by children – Rhode Island, January 1994-July 1996,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 277(10):785-786, 1997.