This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available.  The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Miech, R.; Patrick, M.E.; Keyes, K.; O’Malley, P.M.; Johnston, L., “Adolescent drug use before and during U.S. national COVID-19 social distancing policies,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 226: 108822, September 1, 2021.

Pelham III, W.E.; Tapert, S.F.; Gonzalez, M.R.; Van Rinsveld, A.M.; Wade, N.E.; Brown, S.A., “Early adolescent substance use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal survey in the ABCD Study cohort,” Journal of Adolescent Health 63(3): 390-397, September 1, 2021.

Garcia, L.; Abreu, C.; Abe, A.; Matos, M.A., “Reflections on passive smoking and COVID-19,” Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira 67(Suppl 1): 22–25, 2021.

Lallai, V.; Manca, L.; Fowler, C.D., “E-cigarette vape and lung ACE2 expression: implications for coronavirus vulnerability,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 86: 103656, August 2021.

Gallo, O., “Risk for COVID-19 infection in patients with tobacco smoke-associated cancers of the upper and lower airway,” European Archives of Oto-Rrhino-Laryngology 278(8): 2695-2702, August 2021.

Burki, T.K., “Tobacco industry capitalises on the COVID-19 pandemic,” Lancet Respiratory Medicine [Epub ahead of print], July 29, 2021.

Ganne, N.; Palraj, R.; Husted, E.; Shah, I., “E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) masquerading as COVID-19,” BMJ Case Reports 14(7): e243885, July 23, 2021.

Lugo, A.; Stival, C.; Paroni, L.; Amerio, A.; Carreras, G.; Gorini, G.; Mastrobattista, L.; Minutillo, A.; Mortali, C.; Odone, A.; Pacifici, R.; Tinghino, B.; Gallus, S., “The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on gambling habit: a cross-sectional study from Italy,” Journal of Behavioral Addictions [Epub ahead of print], July 20, 2021.

Besaratinia, A., “COVID-19: a pandemic converged with global tobacco epidemic and widespread vaping – state of the evidence,” Carcinogenesis [Epub ahead of print], July 5, 2021.

Osinibi, M.; Gupta, A.; Harman, K.; Bossley, C.J., “Passive tobacco smoke in children and young people during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Lancet Respiratory Medicine 9(7): 693-694, July 2021.

Shepherd, J.M.; Fogle, B.; Garey, L.; Viana, A.G.; Zvolensky, M.J., “Worry about COVID-19 in relation to cognitive-affective smoking processes among daily adult combustible cigarette smokers,” Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 50(4): 336-350, May-July 2021.

Melamed, O.C.; Zawertailo, L.; Schwartz, R.; Buckley, L.; Selby, P., “Protecting vulnerable groups from tobacco-related harm during and following the COVID-19 pandemic,” Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada [Epub ahead of print], June 23, 2021.

Klein, J.D.; Resnick, E.A.; Chamberlin, M.E.; Kress, E.A., “Second-hand smoke surveillance and COVID-19: a missed opportunity,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], June 11, 2021.

Rigotti, N.A.; Chang, Y.; Regan, S.; Lee, S.; Kelley, J.H.K.; Davis, E.; Levy, D.E.; Singer, D.E.; Tindle, H.A., “Cigarette smoking and risk perceptions during the COVID-19 pandemic reported by recently hospitalized participants in a smoking cessation trial,” Journal of General Internal Medicine [Epub ahead of print], June 7, 2021.

Morawska, L.; Allen, J.; Bahnfleth, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Boerstra, A.; Buonanno, G.; Cao, J.; Dancer, S.J.; Floto, A.; Franchimon, F.; Greenhalgh, T.; Haworth, C.; Hogeling, J.; Isaxon, C.; Jimenez, J.L.; Kurnitski, J.; Li, Y.; Loomans, M.; Marks, G.; Marr, L.C.; Mazzarella, L.; Melikov, A.K.; Miller, S.; Milton, D.K.; Nazaroff, W.; Nielsen, P.V.; Noakes, C.; Peccia, J.; Prather, K.; Querol, X.; Sekhar, C.; Seppänen, O.; Tanabe, S.I.; Tang, J.W.; Tellier, R.; Tham, K.W.; Wargocki, P.; Wierzbicka, A.; Yao, M., “A paradigm shift to combat indoor respiratory infection,” Science 372(6543): 689-691, May 14, 2021.

Brar, E.; Saxena, A.; Dukler, C.; Xu, F.; Saxena, D.; Cheema Brar, P.; Guo, Y.; Li, X., “Vaping, SARS-CoV-2, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome: a perfect storm,” Frontiers in Pediatrics 9: 647925, May 12, 2021.

Sivaraman, V.; Parker, D.; Zhang, R.; Jones, M.M.; Onyenwoke, R.U., “Vaping exacerbates coronavirus-related pulmonary infection in a murine model,” Frontiers in Physiology 12: 634839, May 10, 2021.

Doxbeck, C.R.; Osberg, T.M., “It’s not all smoke and mirrors: the role of social norms, alcohol use, and pandemic partying in e-cigarette use during COVID-19,” Substance Use & Misuse 56(10): 1551-1558, May 2021.

Schiliro, M.; Vogel, E.R.; Paolini, L.; Pabelick, C.M., “Cigarette smoke exposure, pediatric lung disease, and COVID-19,” Frontiers in Physiology 12: 652198, April 27, 2021.

Tini, G.; Gallo, G.; Musumeci, B.; Tocci, G.; Volpe, M., “A plea for smoking-free policies in COVID-19 times: cardiovascular prevention as an ally in coronavirus containment,” High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention [Epub ahead of print], April 26, 2021.

Kreslake, J.M.; Simard, B.J.; O’Connor, K.M.; Patel, M.; Vallone, D.M.; Hair, E.C., “E-cigarette use among youths and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: United States, 2020,” American Journal of Public Health [Epub ahead of print], April 15, 2021.

Hassoun, A.; Brady, K.; Arefi, R.; Trifonova, I.; Tsirilakis, K., “Vaping-associated lung injury during COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome outbreak,” Journal of Emergency Medicine 60(4): 524-530, April 2021.

Sokolovsky, A.W.; Hertel, A.W.; Micalizzi, L.; White, H.R.; Hayes, K.L.; Jackson, K.M., “Preliminary impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on smoking and vaping in college students,” Addictive Behaviors 115: 106783, April 2021.

Yang, H.; Ma, J., “How the COVID-19 pandemic impacts tobacco addiction: changes in smoking behavior and associations with well-being,” Addictive Behaviors 119: 106917, March 22, 2021.

Verma S., “Vaping: from public health crisis to impacting SARS-CoV-2 pandemic,” American Journal of Epidemiology & Public Health 5(2): 036-041, March 11, 2021.

Gonzalez, M.; Epperson, A.E.; Halpern-Felsher, B.; Halliday, D.M.; Song, A.V., “Smokers are more likely to smoke more after the COVID-19 California lockdown order,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(5): 2582, March 5, 2021.

McAlinden, K.D.; Lu, W.; Ferdowsi, P.V.; Myers, S.; Markos, J.; Larby, J.; Chia, C.; Weber, H.C.; Haug, G.; Eapen, M.S.; Sohal, S.S., “Electronic cigarette aerosol Is cytotoxic and increases ACE2 expression on human airway epithelial cells: implications for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19),” Journal of Clinical Medicine 10(5): 1028, March 3, 2021.

Ishii, K.; Ohno, Y.; Oikawa, M.; Onishi, N., “Relationship between human exhalation diffusion and posture in face-to-face scenario with utterance,” Physics of Fluids 33(2): 027101, February 23, 2021.

Kumar, N.; Janmohamed, K.; Nyhan, K.; Martins, S.S.; Cerda, M.; Hasin, D.; Scott, J.; Pates, R.; Ghandour, L.; Wazaify, M.; Khoshnood, K., “Substance use and substance use disorder, in relation to COVID-19: protocol for a scoping review,” Systematic Reviews 10(1): 48, February 3, 2021.

Bandara, N.A.; Herath, J.; Mehrnoush, V., “Addressing e-cigarette health claims made on social media amidst the COVID-19 pandemic,” World Journal of Pediatrics 17(1): 3-5, February 2021.

Andreu-Mondon, M.; Barrio-Gimenez, P.; Mondon-Vehils, S., “COVID-19 and restrictions on tobacco use,” Med Clin (Barc) 156(2): 93, January 22, 2021.

Borgonhi, E.M.; Volpatto, V.L.; Ornell, F.; Rabelo-da-Ponte, F.D.; Kessler, F.H.P., “Multiple clinical risks for cannabis users during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 16(1): 5, January 20, 2021.

Klein, E.G.; Koopman Gonzalez, S.; Pike Moore, S.; Bohnert, E.J.; Quisenberry, A.J.; Trapl, E.S., “Pulling your mask down to smoke: qualitative themes from young adults on nicotine use during a pandemic,” Substance Use & Misuse [Epub ahead of print], January 13, 2021.

Hopkinson, N.S.; Rossi, N.; El-Sayed Moustafa, J.; Laverty, A.A.; Quint, J.K.; Freidin, M.; Visconti, A.; Murray, B.; Modat, M.; Ourselin, S.; Small, K.; Davies, R.; Wolf, J.; Spector, T.D.; Steves, C.J.; Falchi, M., “Current smoking and COVID-19 risk: results from a population symptom app in over 2.4 million people,” Thorax [Epub ahead of print], January 5, 2021.

Urrutia-Pereira, M.; Mello-da-Silva, C.A.; Solé, D., “Household pollution and COVID-19: irrelevant association?,” Allergologia Immunopathologia 49(1): 146-149, January 2, 2021.

Allami, R.H.; Suleiman, A.A.; Enezei, H.H., “Are smoker/vapers at risk of severe COVID-19 infection?,” Al-Anbar Medical Journal [Epub ahead of print], 2021.

Bartel, S.J.; Sherry, S.B.; Stewart, S.H., “Self-isolation: a significant contributor to cannabis use during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Substance Abuse 41(4): 409-412, 2020.

Dai, M.; Tao, L.; Chen, Z.; Tian, Z.; Guo, X.; Allen-Gipson, D.S.; Tan, R.; Li, R.; Chai, L.; Ai, F.; Liu, M., “Influence of cigarettes and alcohol on the severity and death of COVID-19: a multicenter retrospective study in Wuhan, China,” Frontiers in Physiology [Epub ahead of print], December 9, 2020.

Gaiha, S.M.; Lempert, L.K.; Halpern-Felsher, B., “Underage youth and young adult e-cigarette use and access before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic,” JAMA Network Open 3(12): e2027572, December 3, 2020.

Stokes, A.C., “Declines in electronic cigarette use among US youth in the era of COVID-19-a critical opportunity to stop youth vaping in its tracks,” JAMA Network Open 3(12): e2028221, December 1, 2020.

Kamiński, M.; Muth, A.; Bogdański, P., “Smoking, vaping, and tobacco industry during COVID-19 pandemic: Twitter data analysis,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 23(12): 811-817, December 2020.

Sifat, A.E.; Nozohouri, S.; Villalba, H.; Vaidya, B.; Abbruscato, T.J., “The role of smoking and nicotine in the transmission and pathogenesis of COVID-19,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 375(3): 498-509, December 2020.

Soule, E.K.; Kheradmand, F.; Eissenberg, T., “Health practitioners should caution about misinformation and association of adverse effects of electronic cigarette use and COVID-19,” Preventive Medicine Reports 20: 101255, December 2020.

Li, D.; Croft, D.P.; Ossip, D.J.; Xie, Z., “The association between statewide vaping prevalence and COVID-19,” Preventive Medicine Reports 20: 101254, December 2020.

Abrams, E.M.; Sinha, I.; Fernandes, R.M.; Hawcutt, D.B., “Pediatric asthma and COVID-19: the known, the unknown, and the controversial,” Pediatric Pulmonology 55(12): 3573-3578, December 2020.

Shastri, M.D.; Shukla, S.D.; Chong, W.C.; Kc, R.; Dua, K.; Patel, R.P.; Peterson, G.M.; O’Toole, R.F., “Smoking and COVID-19: what we know so far,” Respiratory Medicine 176: 106237, November 19, 2020.

Wenzl, T, “Smoking and COVID-19: did we overlook representativeness?,” Tobacco Induced Diseases 18: 89, November 2, 2020.

Rubin, R., “Substance use disorder linked to higher COVID-19 risk,” Journal of the American Medical Association 324(16): 1598, October 27, 2020.

Berg, C.J.; Callanan, R.; Johnson, T.O.; Schliecher, N.C.; Sussman, S.; Wagener, T.L.; Meaney, M.; Henriksen, L., “Vape shop and consumer activity during COVID-19 non-essential business closures in the USA,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], October 19, 2020.

Salah, H.M.; Sharma, T.; Mehta, J., “Smoking doubles the mortality risk in COVID-19: a meta-analysis of recent reports and potential mechanisms,” Cureus 12(10): e10837, October 7, 2020.

Kazachkov, M.; Pirzada, M., “Diagnosis of EVALI in the COVID-19 era,” Lancet [Epub ahead of print], October 6, 2020.

Zhao, Q.; Meng, M.; Kumar, R.; Wu, Y.; Huang, J.; Lian, N.; Deng, Y.; Lin, S., “The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID-19: a systemic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Medical Virology 92(10): 1915-1921, October 2020.

Gaiha, S.M.; Cheng, J.; Halpern-Felsher, B., “Association between youth smoking, electronic cigarette use, and COVID-19,” Journal of Adolescent Health 67(4): 519-523, October 2020.

Vanderbruggen, N.; Matthys, F.; Van Laere, S.; Zeeuws, D.; Santermans, L.; Van den Ameele, S.; Crunelle, C.L., “Self-reported alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use during COVID-19 lockdown measures: results from a web-based survey,” European Addiction Research [Epub ahead of print], September 22, 2020.

Soule, E.K.; Mayne, S.; Snipes, W.; Guy, M.C.; Breland, A.; Fagan, P., “Impacts of COVID-19 on electronic cigarette purchasing, use and related behaviors,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(18): 6762, September 16, 2020.

Sanchez-Ramirez, D.C.; Mackey, D., “Underlying respiratory diseases, specifically COPD, and smoking are associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Respiratory Medicine 171: 106096, September 2020.

Tsigaris, P.; Teixeira da Silva, J.A., “Smoking prevalence and COVID-19 in Europe,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 22(9): 1646-1649, September 2020.

Patanavanich, R.; Glantz, S.A., “Smoking is associated with COVID-19 progression: a meta-analysis,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 22(9): 1653-1656, September 2020.

Tindle, H.A.; Newhouse, P.A.; Freiberg, M.S., “Beyond smoking cessation: investigating medicinal nicotine to prevent and treat COVID-19,” Nicotine and Respiratory Research 22(9): 1669-1670, September 2020.

Reddy, R.K.; Charles, W.N.; Sklavounos, A.; Dutt, A.; Seed, P.T.; Khajuria, A., “The effect of smoking on COVID-19 severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Medical Virology [Epub ahead of print], August 4, 2020.

Zheng, Z.; Peng, F.; Xu, B.; Zhao, J.; Liu, H.; Peng, J.; Li, Q.; Jiang, C.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, S.; Ye, C.; Zhang, P.; Xing, Y.; Guo, H.; Tang, W., “Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Infection 81(2): e16-e25, August 2020.

Jiménez-Ruiz, C.A.; López-Padilla, D.; Alonso-Arroyo, A.; Aleixandre-Benavent, R.; Solano-Reina, S.; de Granda-Orive, J.I., “COVID-19 and smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence,” Archives of Bronconeumologia [Epub ahead of print], July 25, 2020.

Lippi, G.; Sanchis-Gomar, F.; Henry, B.M., “Active smoking and COVID-19: a double-edged sword,” European Journal of Internal Medicine 77: 123-124, July 2020.

van Zyl-Smit, R.N.; Richards, G.; Leone, F.T., “Tobacco smoking and COVID-19 infection,” Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8(7): 664-665, July 2020.

Armatas, C.; Heinzerling, A.; Wilken, J.A., “Notes from the field: e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury cases during the COVID-19 response – California, 2020,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69(25): 801-802, June 26, 2020.

El-Awa, F.; Fraser, C.P.; Adib, K.; Hammerich, A.; Abdel Latif, N.; Fayokun, R.; Prasad, V.; Fu, D.; Vestal, G.; Schotte, K.; Gouda, H.; St. Claire, S., “The necessity of continuing to ban tobacco use in public places post-COVID-19,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 26(6): 630-632, June 24, 2020.

Wang, Q.; Sundar, I.K.; Li, D.; Lucas, J.H.; Muthumalage, T.; McDonough, S.R.; Rahman, I., “E-cigarette-induced pulmonary inflammation and dysregulated repair are mediated by nAChR α7 receptor: role of nAChR α7 in SARS-CoV-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor regulation,” Respiratory Research 21(1): 154, June 18, 2020.

Kaur, G.; Lungarella, G.; Rahman, I., “SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 susceptibility and lung inflammatory storm by smoking and vaping,” Journal of Inflammation 17: 21, June 10, 2020.

Archie, S.R.; Cucullo, L., “Cerebrovascular and neurological dysfunction under the threat of COVID-19: is there a comorbid role for smoking and vaping?,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21(11): 3916, June 2020.

Russo, P.; Bonassi, S.; Giaconni, R.; Malavolta, M.; Tomino, C.; Maggi, F., “COVID-19 and smoking: is nicotine the hidden link?,” European Respiratory Journal 5(6): 2001116, June 2020.

Medel, D.; Meza, L.; Galimov, A.; Baezconde-Garbanati, L.; Sussman, S., “Notes from the field: vape shop business operations compliance in the wake of COVID-19,” Evaluation & the Health Professions 43(2): 135-137, June 2020.

Crane-Godreau, M.A.; Clem, K.J.; Payne, P.; Fiering, S., “Vitamin D deficiency and air pollution exacerbate COVID-19 through suppression of antiviral peptide LL37,” Frontiers in Public Health 8: 232, May 28, 2020.

Caponnetto, P.; Inguscio, L.; Saitta, C.; Maglia, M.; Benfatto, F.; Polosa, R., “Smoking behavior and psychological dynamics during COVID-19 social distancing and stay-at-home policies: a survey,” Health Psychology Research 8(1): 9124, May 27, 2020.

Pino, L.E.; Triana, I.; Pérez, C.; Piotrostanalzki, A.; Ruiz-Patiño, A.; Lopes, G.; Cardona, A.F., “Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ECs) and COVID-19: the perfect storm for young consumers,” Clin Transl Oncol [Epub ahead of print], May 23, 2020.

Leung, J.M.; Yang, C.X.; Tam, A.; Shaipanich, T.; Hackett, T.L.; Singhera, G.K.; Dorscheid, D.R.; Sin, D.D., “ACE-2 expression in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients: implications for COVID-19,” European Respiratory Journal 55(5): 2000688, May 14, 2020.

Alqahtani, J.S.; Oyelade, T.; Aldhahir, A.M.; Alghamdi, S.M.; Almehmadi, M.; Alqahtani, A.S.; Quaderi, S.; Mandal, S.; Hurst, J.R., “Prevalence, severity and mortality associated with COPD and smoking in patients with COVID-19: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 15(5): e0233147, May 11, 2020.

Cattaruzza, M.S.; Zagà, V.; Gallus, S.; D’Argenio, P.; Gorini, G., “Tobacco smoking and COVID-19 pandemic: old and new issues: a summary of the evidence from the scientific literature,” Acta Bio-Medica 91(2): 106-112, May 11, 2020.

Shekhar, S.; Hannah-Shmouni, F., “Hookah smoking and COVID-19: call for action,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 192(17): E462, April 27, 2020.

Mahabee-Gittens, E.M.; Merianos, A.L.; Matt, G.E., “Letter to the editor regarding: ‘An imperative need for research on the role of environmental factors in transmission of novel coronavirus (COVID-19)’ -secondhand and thirdhand smoke as potential sources of COVID-19,” Environmental Science & Technology [Epub ahead of print], April 22, 2020.

Javelle, E., “Electronic cigarette and vaping should be discouraged during the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic,” Archives of Toxicology [Epub ahead of print], April 18, 2020.

Vardavis, C.I.; Nikitara, K., “COVID-19 and smoking: a systematic review of the evidence,” Tobacco Induced Diseases 18:20, March 2020.

Tajlil, A.; Ghaffari, S.; Pourafkari, L.; Mashayekhi, S.; Roshanravan, N., “Nicotine and smoking in the COVID-19 era,” Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research 12(2): 136-139, 2020.