This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

This bibliography begins with a short list of tobacco industry-sponsored research into the economic impact of smokefree laws.

The second part of the bibliography contains other economic impact studies.


[n.a.], “Fuzzy math: now the tobacco industry distorts the truth about the economic effects of smokefree restaurants and bars,” American Lung Association Tobacco Policy Trend Alert, September 2004.

Mandel, L.L.; Glantz, S.A., “Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smoke-free policies,” Tobacco Control 13(3): 268-276, September 2004.

Dearlove, J.V.; Bialous, S.A.; Glantz, S.A., “Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places,” Tobacco Control 11: 94-104, 2002.

Ritch, W.A.; Begay, M.E., “Strange bedfellows: the history of collaboration between the Massachusetts Restaurant Association and the tobacco industry,” American Journal of Public Health 91(4): 598-603, April 2001.

Magzamen, S.; Glantz, S.A., “The new battleground: California’s experience with smoke-free bars,” American Journal of Public Health91(2): 245-252, February 2001.

[n.a.], “Self-serving surveys: the 30 percent myth. In: Public Interest Pretenders: That group with the do-good name may not be what it seems.,” Consumer Reports 59(5): 316-320, May 1994.


Wong, C., “Smoking bans are coming: what does the evidence say?Nature 628(8009): 695-696, April 2024.

Tauras, J.A.; Chaloupka, F., “The economic effects of cigarette sales and flavor bans on tobacco retail businesses (report), June 2023.

Mamudu, H.M.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Nolt, K.L.; Minnick, C.; Nriagu, V.; Smith, J.L.; Studlar, D.T., “An economic assessment of smokefree policies in Tennessee: a white paper,” Johnson City, TN: Eastern Tennessee State University, February 28, 2022.

Tauras, J.A.; Chaloupka, F.J.; Moor, G.; Nez-Henderson, P.; Leischow, S.J., “Effect of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions and revenue,” Tobacco Control 27(e2): e130-e135, October 2018.

Shafer, P., “Impact of U.S. smoke-free air laws on restaurant and bar employment, 1990-2015,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], December 23, 2017.

Shafer, P., “Impact of US smoke-free air laws on restaurants and bars by employer size: a panel study,” BMJ Open 7(11): e018137, November 1, 2017.

Ballester, L.S.; Auchincloss, A.H.; Robinson, L.F.; Mayne, S.L., “Exploring impacts of taxes and hospitality bans on cigarette prices and smoking prevalence using a large dataset of cigarette prices at stores 2001-2011, USA,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health14(3): 318, March 20, 2017.

Nikaj, S.; Miller, J.J.; Tauras, J., “Over time impacts of smoke free air ordinances in Texas: NBER Working Paper No. 22352,” National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2016.

Shafer, P.; Loomis, B., “Economic impact of smoke-free air laws in North Dakota on restaurants and bars,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], February 17, 2016.

National Cancer Institute; World Health Organization, “The economics of tobacco and tobacco control: NCI Tobacco Control Monograph 21, in collaboration with World Health Organization — NIH Publication No. 16-CA-8029A,” Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 2016.

Laux, F., “Economic impact of Oklahoma’s smoke-free air policies on restaurants,” Journal of the Oklahoma Medical Association 108(11): 463-470, November 2015.

García-Villar, J.; López-Nicolás, Á., “Who is afraid of smoking bans? An evaluation of the effects of the Spanish clean air law on expenditure at hospitality venues,” European Journal of Health Economics 6(8): 813-834, November 2015.

Talias, M.A.; Savva, C.S.; Soteriades, E.S.; Lazuras, L., “The effect of smoke-free policies on hospitality industry revenues in Cyprus: an econometric approach,” Tobacco Control 24(e3): e199-e204, October 2015.

García-Altés, A.; Pinilla, J.; Dell’Olmo, M.M.; Fernández, E.; López, M.J., “Economic impact of smoke-free legislation: did the Spanish Tobacco Control Law affect the economic activity of bars and restaurants?,” Nicotine & Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], January 12, 2015.

Klein, E.G.; Hood, N.E., “The smoking ban next door: do hospitality businesses in border areas have reduced sales after a statewide smoke-free policy?,” Health Policy 119(1): 44-49, January 2015.

Brokenleg, I.S.; Barber, T.K.; Bennett, N.L.; Peart, B.S.; Blue, B.J., V., “Gambling with our health: smoke-free policy would not reduce tribal casino patronage,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 47(3): 290-299, September 2014.

Cornelsen, L.; McGowan, Y.; Currie-Murphy, L.M.; Normand, C., “Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars,” Addiction 109(5): 720-727, May 2014.

Tauras, J.A.; Chaloupka, F.J.; Keith, J.D.; Brown, D.P.; Meyer, J.B., ” Economic impact of a noncomprehensive smoke-free air law,” Health Promotion Practice [Online ahead of print], January 6, 2014.

Cornelsen, L.; Normand, C.; “Impact of the Irish smoking ban on sales in bars using a large business-level data set from 1999 to 2007,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], October 8, 2013.

Dobson Amato, K.A.; Rivard, C.; Lipsher, J.; Hyland, A.,” Five years after the Hawai’i Smoke-free Law: tourism and hospitality economic indicators appear unharmed,” Hawai’i Journal of Medicine and Public Health 72(10): 355-361, October 2013.

Loomis, B.R.; Shafer, P.R.; van Hasselt, M., “The economic impact of smoke-free laws on restaurants and bars in 9 states,” Preventing Chronic Disease 10: e128, August 1, 2013.

Huang, J.; Chaloupka, F.J., “The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores,” Tobacco Control22(2): 91-96, March 2013.

Christophi, C.A.; Paisi, M.; Pampaka, D.; Kehagias, M.; Vardavas, C.; Connolly, G.N., “The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues,” BMC Public Health [Online ahead of print], January 27, 2013.

McMillen, R.; Shackelford, S., “Tax revenue in Mississippi communities rollowing implementation of smoke-free ordinances: an examination of tourism and economic development tax revenues,” Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association 53(10): 319-321, October 2012.

Repace, J.; Zhang, B.; Bondy, S.J.; Benowitz, N.; Ferrence, R., “Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke-free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers, Indoor.Air [Online ahead of print] September 24, 2012.

Phelps, R., “An empirical investigation into the local decision to ban smoking,” Journal of Applied Economics and Policy 31(1): 35-53, Summer, 2012.

Schulz, P.J.; Hartung, U.; Fiordelli, M., “Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue,” International Journal of Public Health [Online ahead of print], August 22, 2012.

Kasza, K.A.; McKee, S.A.; Rivard, C.; Hyland, A.J., “Smoke-free bar policies and Smokers’ alcohol consumption: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence[Online ahead of print], June 13, 2012.

Candioti, C.; Rossini, G.; Depetris de, G.E.; Costa, O.; Schoj, V., “Economic evaluation of a 100% smoke-free law on the hospitality industry in an Argentinean province,” Salud Publica de Mexico 54(3): 225-232, June 2012.

De Schoenmaker, S.; Van Cauwenberge, P.; Vander Bauwhede, H., “The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants,”Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], May 7, 2012.

Kayani, N.; Cowan, S.R.; Homan, S.G.; Wilson, J.; Warren, V.F.; Yun, S., “Economic effect of smoke-free ordinances on 11 Missouri cities, ” Preventing Chronic Disease 9: E106, May 2012.

Harris, J.K.; Carothers, B.J.; Luke, D.A.; Silmere, H.; McBride, T.D.; Pion, M., “Exempting casinos from the Smoke-free Illinois Act will not bring patrons back: they never left,” Tobacco Control 21(3): 373-376, May 2012.

Cox, C.C., “Economic impact of a smoke-free ordinance on bars and restaurants in a small, rural, Missouri community,” Missouri Medicine, January/February, 2012.

Pyles, M.K.; Hahn, E.J., “Economic effects of smoke-free laws on rural and urban counties in Kentucky and Ohio,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 14(1): 111-115, January 2012.

Kayani, N.; Cowan, S.R.; Homan, S.G.; Wilson, J.; Warren, V.F.; Yun, S., “Economic effect of smoke-free ordinances on 11 Missouri cities,” Preventing Chronic Disease 9, 2012.

Macy, J.T.; Hernandez, E.L., “The impact of a local smoke-free air law on wagering at an off-track betting facility in Indiana,” Tobacco Control 20(5): 383-384, September 2011.

Chaloupka, F.J.; Tauras, J.A., “The economic impact of the 2003 Florida Clean Indoor Air Act,” [Florida Department of Health and Human Services?], August 2011.

Ahrens, D., “An analysis of the economic effects of Wisconsin’s smokefree municipal ordinances on alcohol licensed establishments: 2005-2009,” University of Wisconsin, Carbone Cancer Center, Tobacco Surveillance and Evaluation Program, January 2011.

Klein, E.G.; Forster, J.L.; Collins, N.M.; Erickson, D.J.; Toomey, T.L., “Employment change for bars and restaurants following a statewide clean indoor air policy,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39(6S1): S16-S22, December 2010.

Pyles, M.K.; Hahn, E.J., “Economic effects of Ohio’s smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], September 24, 2010.

Khawaja, O.; Al-Mallah, M., “The impact of public smoking ban on the incidence of myocardial infarction hospitalizations,” Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine 11(3): e121-e129, Summer 2010.

Klein, E.G.; Forster, J.L.; Erickson, D.J.; Lytle, L.A.; Schillo, B., “Economic effects of clean indoor air policies on bar and restaurant employment in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 16(4): 285-293, July-August, 2010.

Young, W.F.; Szychowski, J.; Karp, S.; Liu, L.; Diedrich, R.T., “Economic impacts of the Pueblo Smokefree Air Act,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 38(3): 340-343, March 2010.

Denton, C.; Gallion, K.J., “Secondhand smoke policies in Bexar County, 2010,” San Antonio Tobacco Prevention and Control Coalition, 2010.

Lal, A.; Siahpush, M., “The effect of smoke-free policies on revenue in bars in Tasmania, Australia,” Tobacco Control 18(5): 405-408, October 2009.

Klein, E.G.; Forster, J.L.; Erickson, D.J.; Lytle, L.A.; Schillo, B., “Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?,” Prevention Science 10(2): 168-174, June 2009.

Viriyachaiyo, V.; Lim, A., “Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand,” Tobacco Control 18(3): 238-240, June 2009.

[n.a.], “The economic impact of smoke-free policies on business and health,” Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Center for Health Policy, March 2009.

Pyles, M.K.; Hahn, E.J., “Smoke-free legislation and charitable gaming in Kentucky,” Tobacco Control 18(1): 60-62, February 2009.

MGT of America, Inc., “The economic impact of the smoking ordinance on restaurant sales and mixed beverage sales in Houston, Texas,” Austin, TX: MGT of America, Inc., January 2009.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, “Evaluating the effectiveness of smoke-free policies: IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control, volume 13,” World Health Organization (WHO), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2009.

Pyles, M.K.; Hahn, E.J., “Economic impact of smoke-free ordinances on charitable gaming in Kentucky,” University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, August 18, 2008.

Pierce, J.P.; Leon, M.E., “Special report: policy – effectiveness of smoke-free policies,” Lancet Oncology 9: 614-615, July 2008. Abstract Unavailable

Speight, B., “Smoke and mirrors: tobacco industry claims unfounded economic studies conclude smoke free laws do not harm bar and restaurant business,” Wisconsin Public Interest Research Group (WISPIRG) Web Site –, February 2008.

Thompson, E.; Hahn, E.J.; Blomquist, G.; Garen, J.; Mullineaux, D.; Ogunro, N.; Rayens, M.K., “Smoke-free laws and employee turnover,” Contemporary Economic Policy [Online ahead of print], January 16, 2008.

Fleck, R.K.; Hanssen, F.A., “Why understanding smoking bans is important for estimating their effects: California’s restaurant smoking bans and restaurant sales,” Economic Inquiry 46(1): 60-76, January 2008.

Biener, L.; Garrett, C.A.; Skeer, M.; Siegel, M.; Connolly, G., “The effects on smokers of Boston’s smoke-free bar ordinance: a longitudinal analysis of changes in compliance, patronage, policy support, and smoking at home,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 13(6): 640-646, November-December, 2007.

Eriksen, M.; Chaloupka, F., “The economic impact of clean indoor air laws,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 57(6): 367-378, November 2007.

Alamar, B.; Glantz, S.A., “Effect of smoke-free laws on bar value and profits,” American Journal of Public Health 97(8): 1400-1402, August 1, 2007.

Hillel, R.A.; Carpenter, C.M.; Travers, M.J.; Connolly, G.N., “Environmental and economic evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Act,” Journal of Community Health 32(4): 269-281, August 2007.

Binkin, N.; Perra, A.; Aprile, V.; D’Argenzio, A.; Lopresti, S.; Mingozzi, O.; Scondotto, S., “Effects of a generalised ban on smoking in bars and restaurants, Italy,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease11(5): 522-527, May 2007.

Pyles, M.K.; Mullineaux, D.J.; Okoli, C.T.C.; Hahn, E.J., “Economic effect of a smoke-free law in a tobacco-growing community,” Tobacco Control16(1): 66-68, February 1, 2007.

Stolzenberg, L.; D’Alessio, S.J., “Is nonsmoking dangerous to the health of restaurants? The effect of California’s indoor smoking ban on restaurant revenues,” Evaluation Review 31(1): 75-92, February 2007.

Stoltz, D.; Bromelkamp, M., “A research study: the measurable economic impact of certain smoke-free ordinances in Minnesota,” ClearWay Minnesota, February 2007.

Waring, M.S.; Siegel, J.A., “An evaluation of the indoor air quality in bars before and after a smoking ban in Austin, Texas,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500513 [Online ahead of print], June 28, 2006

Harrison, P.; Narayan, G.; Ziegler, K.; Roberts, L.; Marvel, I., “Taxable revenues reported before and after enactment of the Indoor Smoking Ordinance by Minneapolis businesses with on-sale liquor licenses: a comparison of revenues for the 6-month periods from April through September in 2003, 2004, and 2005,” Minneapolis, MN: City of Minneapolis, March 20, 2006.

McNulty, M.; McLean, M.; Feldman, L.; Hansen, E., “The economic impact of Laramie’s smokefree ordinance: second quarterly report — report to the Wyoming Department of Health Substance Abuse Division, WYSAC Technical Report No. CHES-527-02,” Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Wyoming Survey & Analysis Center, February 2006. Abstract Unavailable

Cowling, D.W.; Bond, P., “Smoke-free laws and bar revenues in California: the last call,” Health Economics 14(12): 1273-1281, December 2005.

Evans, W.N.; Hyland, A., “The impact of the Montgomery County smoke free ordinance on restaurant sales and employment,” College Park, MD: University of Maryland, Department of Economics and the Maryland Population Research Center, October 2005. Abstract Unavailable

Fox, M.H., “Changes in liquor excise tax collections for five Kansas communities: 2002 – 2005,” Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, September 8, 2005. Abstract Unavailable

Simpson, D., “Smoke-free laws do not harm profits: new global report,” Tobacco Control 14(4): 220, August 2005.

Scollo, M.; Lal, A., “Summary of studies assessing the impact of smoking restrictions on the hospitality industry,” Melbourne, Australia: VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, July 2005.

Behan, D.F.; Eriksen, M.P.; Lin, Y., “Economic Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke,” Society of Actuaries, March 31, 2005.

Assessing the economic impact of the Fayetteville, Arkansas smoking ban,” Sam M. Walton College of Business, Center for Business and Economic Research, May 2005.

Hahn, E.J.; Mullineaux, D.J.; Thompson, E.; Pyles, M.; Okoli, C.T.C., “Economic impact of Lexington’s smoke-free law:
a progress report
,” University of Kentucky College of Nursing, April 18, 2005.

Connolly, G.N.; Carpenter, C.; Alpert, H.R.; Skeer, M.; Travers, M., “Evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Law: a preliminary report,” Division of Public Health Practice, Harvard School of Public Health, Tobacco Research Program, April 4, 2005.

Mandel, L.L.; Alamar, B.C.; Glantz, S.A., “Smoke-free law did not affect revenue from gaming in Delaware,” Tobacco Control 14(1): 10-12, February 2005.

Fox, M., “The economic impact of indoor smoking bans,” Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, October 13, 2004

Alamar, B.C.; Glantz, S.A., “Smoke-free ordinances increase restaurant profit and value,” Contemporary Economic Policy 22(4): 520-525, October 2004.

Max, W.; Rice, D.P.; Sung, H-Y; Zhang, X.; Miller, L., “The economic burden of smoking in California,” Tobacco Control 13(3): 264-267, September 2004.

Ong, M.K.; Glantz, S.A., “Cardiovascular health and economic effects of smoke-free workplaces,” American Journal of Medicine 117(1): 32-38, July 1, 2004.

Coombes, R., “One hospitality worker a week dies from passive smoking, study shows,” BMJ 328: 1222, May 22, 2004.

Shopland, D.R.; Anderson, C.M.; Burns, D.M.; Gerlach, K.K., “Disparities in smoke-free workplace policies among food service workers,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 46(4): 347-356, April 2004.

[n.a.], “Impact of a smoking ban on restaurant and bar revenues – El Paso, Texas, 2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(7): 150-152, February 27, 2004.

Kunzli, N.; Mazzoletti, P.; Adam, M.; Gotschi, T.; Mathys, P.; Monn, C.; Brandli, O., “Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful,” Tobacco Control 12(3): 282-288, September 2003.

Buettner-Schmidt, K.; Moseley, F., “An economic analysis of a smoke-free restaurant ordinance in a midwestern frontier state,” Minot, ND: Minot State University, September 2003. Abstract Unavailable

Hyland, A.; Puli, V.; Cummings, M.; Sciandra, R., “New York’s smoke-free regulations: effects on employment and sales in the hospitality industry,” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly: 9-16, June 2003.

Tang, H.; Cowling, D.W.; Lloyd, J.C.; Rogers, T.; Koumjian, K.L.; Stevens, C.M.; Bal, D.G., “Changes of attitudes and patronage behaviors in response to a smoke-free bar law,” American Journal of Public Health93(4): 611-617, April 2003.

[n.a.], “Survey: gay adults would pay more for smoke-free bars,”Advocate, January 15, 2003. Abstract Unavailable

[n.a.], “The state of smoke-free New York City: a one-year review,” New York, NY: New York City Department of Finance; New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene; New York City Department of Small Business Services; New York City Economic Development Corporation, March 2004.

Scollo, M.; Lal, A.; Hyland, A.; Glantz, S., “Review of the quality of studies on the economic effects of smoke-free policies on the hospitality industry,” Tobacco Control 12: 13-20, 2003.

Glantz, S.A.; Wilson-Loots, R., “No association of smoke-free ordinances with profits from bingo and charitable games in Massachusetts,” Tobacco Control 12: 411-413, 2003.

Wakefield, M.; Siahpush, M.; Scollo, M.; Lal, A.; Hyland, A.; McCaul, K.; Miller, C., “The effect of a smoke-free law on restaurant business in South Australia,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 26(4): 375-382, August 2002.

[n.a.], “Hong Kong smoke-ban pollster eyes sales gains,” Nation’s Restaurant News 36(28): 60, July 15, 2002. Abstract Unavailable

Zollinger, T.W.; Saywell, Jr., R.M.; Overgaard, A.D.; Holloway, A.M., “The economic impact of secondhand smoke on the health of residents and employee smoking on business costs in Marion County, Indiana for 2000,” Marion County Health Department, February 2002.

Ong, M.; Lightwood, J.; Glantz, S.A., “Health and economic impacts of the proposed Florida Smokefree for Health Initiative,” San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, January 2002.

Bartosch, W.J.; Pope, G.C., “Economic effect of restaurant smoking restrictions on restaurant business in Massachusetts, 1992 to 1998,” Tobacco Control 11(Suppl II): ii38-ii42, 2002.

Wingo, C.; Kiser, D.; Boschert, T.; Hunting, P.; Buffington, T.; Wellman-Benson, J., “Eliminating smoking in bars, taverns and gaming clubs: the California Smoke-Free Workplace Act, a case study,” Sacramento: California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section (TCS), November 2001.
Abstract Unavailable

Colman, R.; Urbonas, C.M., “The economic impact of smoke-free workplaces: an assessment for Nova Scotia, prepared for Tobacco Control Unit, Nova Scotia Department of Health,” GPI Atlantic, September 2001. Abstract Unavailable

Johnson, S.A.; Soden, D.L.; Villa, C.; Morales, J., “[Part 1 & Part 2: policy analysis and economic impact study of smoke-free indoor air ordinances in the Paso del Norte region. IPED Technical Report 2001-3],” El Paso, TX: Institue for Policy and Economic Development, University of Texas, El Paso, May 2001. Abstract Unavailable

Styring, III, W., “A study of the Fort Wayne (IN) restaurant smoking ban: has it impacted the restaurant business?,” [n.s.], May 2001.

Cremieux, P.; Ouellette, P., “Actual and perceived impacts of tobacco regulation on restaurants and firms,” Tobacco Control 10(1): 33-37, March 2001.

Kiser, D.; Boschert, T., “Eliminating smoking in bars, restaurants, and gaming clubs in California: BREATH, the California Smoke-Free Bar Program,” Journal of Public Health Policy 22(1): 81-87, 2001.

Kottke, T.E.; Aase, L.A.; Brandel, C.L.; Brekke, M.; Brekke, L.N.; DeBoer, S.W.; Hayes, S.N.; Hoffman, R.S.; Menzel, P.A.; Thomas, R.J., “Attitudes of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents about tobacco smoke in restaurants and bars,” Mayo Clin Proc. 76: 134-137, 2001.

Chapman, S.; Borland, R.; La, A., “Has the ban on smoking in New South Wales restaurants worked? A comparison of restaurants in Sydney and Melbourne,” Medical Journal of Australia 174: 512-515, 2001. Abstract Unavailable

McGhee, S.M.; Adab, P.; Hedley, A.J.; Lam, T.H.; Ho, L.M.; Fielding, R.; Wong, C.M., “Passive smoking at work: the short-term cost,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54: 673-676, September 2000.

Papiernik, R.L., “Study: NYC operators add 20,000 seats a year despite high rents, labor costs,” Nation’s Restaurant News 34(23): 4 , June 12, 2000. Abstract Unavailable

Hayslett, J.A.; Huang, P.P., “Impact of clean indoor air ordinances on restaurant revenues in four Texas cities: Arlington, Austin, Plano and Wichita Falls 1987-1999,” Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Disease, Injury and Tobacco Prevention, March 21, 2000. Abstract Unavailable

Dresser, J.; Boles, S.; Lichtenstein, E.; Strycker, L., “Multiple impacts of a bar smoking prohibition ordinance in Corvallis, Oregon: executive summary,” Eugene, OR: Pacific Research Institute, [2000?]. Abstract Unavailable

Glantz, S.A.; Charlesworth, A., “Tourism and hotel revenues before and after passage of smoke-free restaurant ordinances,” Journal of the American Medical Association 281(20): 1911-1918, May 26, 1999.

Hyland, A.; Cummings, K.M., “Restaurant employment before and after the New York City Smoke-free Air Act,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 5(1): 22-27, January 1999.

Hyland, A.; Cummings, K.M., “Consumer response to the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice5(1): 28-36, January 1999.

Hyland, A.; Cummings, K.M., “Restaurateur reports of the economic impact of the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 5(1): 37-42, January 1999.

Hyland, A.; Cummings, K.M.; Nauenberg, E., “Analysis of taxable sales receipts: was New York City’s Smoke-Free Air Act bad for restaurant business?,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 5(1): 14-21, January 1999.

Bartosch, W.J.; Pope, G.C., “The economic effect of smoke-free restaurant policies on restaurant business in Massachusetts,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 5(1): 53-62, January 1999.

Dresser, L., “Clearing the air: the effect of smokefree ordinances on restaurant revenues in Dane County,” Madison: Tobacco-Free Wisconsin Coalition, January 1999. Abstract Unavailable

Hyland, A.; Cummings, K.M.; Wilson, M.P., “Compliance with the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 5(1): 43-52, January 1999.

Philpot, S.J.; Ryan, S.A.; Torre, L.E.; Wilcox, H.M.; Jalleh, G.; Jamrozik, K., “Effect of smoke-free policies on the behaviour of social smokers,” Tobacco Control 8(3): 278-281, Autumn, 1999.

Goldstein, A.O.; Sobel, R.A., “Environmental tobacco smoke regulations have not hurt restaurant sales in North Carolina,” North Carolina Medical Journal 59(5): 284-287, September/October, 1998.

Sobel, R.A.; Goldstein, A.O.; Ives, T.J., “Impact of smoking control rules on restaurants in Orange County, North Carolina,North Carolina Medical Journal 59(5): 288, September/October, 1998.

Fletcher, J.E., “An analysis of sales tax receipts from restaurants with bars and free standing bars in Chico, California: 1995-1997,” Chico: American Lung Association (ALA) of California, Superior Branch; North Valley Region Tobacco Prevention Center, May 29, 1998. Abstract Unavailable

Sciacca, J.P.; Ratliff, M.I., “Prohibiting smoking in restaurants: effects on restaurant sales,” American Journal of Health Promotion 12(3): 176-184, January/February, 1998.

Stoddard, J.J.; Gray, B., “Maternal smoking and medical expenditures for childhood respiratory illness,” American Journal of Public Health 87(2): 205-209, 1997.

Enz, C.A.; Corsun, D.; Young, C., “To dine or not to dine: restaurant patrons’ responses to the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act,” Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Center for Hospitality Research, 1995. Abstract Unavailable

Klonoff, E.A.; Tully-Payne, L.; Scott, J., “The impact of tobacco control laws on corporate decisions to locate new restaurants,” San Bernadino: California State University, San Bernadino, Behavioral Health Institute, June 1994. Abstract Unavailable

Mudarri, D.H., “The costs and benefits of smoking restrictions: an assessment of the smoke-free environment act of 1993 (H.R. 3434),” Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, April 1994. Abstract Unavailable

[n.a.], “Summary: Marin county survey of smoke free restaurants with bars,” Marin County: Department of Health and Human Services, October 20, 1993. Abstract Unavailable

Smokefree Marin Coalition, “Follow-up interview of Marin County smoke-free restaurants with bars,” Marin County, CA: Smokefree Marin Coalition, October 11, 1993. Abstract Unavailable

Wright, B., “Results of the Legislative Committee’s survey: smoking survey responses,” Business in Brief [San Carlos Chamber of Commerce], September 1993. Abstract Unavailable

Sciacca, J.; Eckrem, M., “Effects of a city ordinance regulating smoking in restaurants and retail stores,” Journal of Community Health 18(3): 175-182, June 1993.

Roberts, S., “Ventura County Public Health Services tobacco-free worksite program restaurant survey,” San Rafael, CA: Sue Roberts, March 1993. Abstract Unavailable

Roberts, S., “California health departments survey local restaurants for business impact of going smoke free,” San Rafael, CA: Sue Roberts, [1993]. Abstract Unavailable

Task Force for a Smoke-Free San Diego, “The economic implications of a smoke-free San Diego on tourism,” San Diego: Task Force for a Smoke-Free San Diego, October 1992. Abstract Unavailable

Smoke Free Marin Coalition, ed., “Findings in support of regulation of secondhand smoke,” Marin County, CA: Tobacco Education Project, August 21, 1992. Abstract Unavailable

Roberts, S., “Marin County Health Services Tobacco Education Program restaurant survey April 1992,” California: Marin County Public Services Tobacco Education Program, April 1992. Abstract Unavailable

McCarley, W.R., “Report of the Chief Legislative Analyst: proposal to prohibit smoking in restaurants,” Los Angeles: Chief Legislative Analyst, March 20, 1992. Abstract Unavailable