This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Lee, J.J.; Yeung, K.C.Y.; Wang, M.P.; et al., “Circumventing tobacco control and safety policies to promote waterpipe use in smoking venues: the perspective of staff in waterpipe smoking venues,” Tobacco Control 32(4): 509-512, July 2023.

Abadi, D.R.V.; Tahmasbizadeh, M.; Arfaeinia, H.; Masjedi, M.R.; Ramavandi, B.; Poureshgh, Y., “Biomonitoring of unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urine of waterpipe/cigarette café workers,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 30(9): 22728-22742, February 2023.

Shearston, J.A.; Eazor, J.; Lee, L.; Ruzmyn Vilcassim, M.J.; Reed, T.A.; Ort, D.; Weitzman, M.; Gordon, T., “Effects of electronic cigarettes and hookah (waterpipe) use on home air quality,” Tobacco Control 32(1): 36-41, January 2023.

Gautam, P.; Sharma, E.; Li, T.; Maziak, W., “Prevalence and predictors of waterpipe smoking cessation among young adults in the US: findings from a population-based study,” Addictive Behaviors 135: 107457, December 2022.

Tabatabaei, Z.; Hoseini, M.; Fararooei, M.; Shamsedini, N.; Baghapour, M.A., “Biomonitoring of BTEX in primary school children exposed to hookah smoke,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research [Online ahead of print], May 13, 2022.

Arfaeinia, H.; Masjedi, M.R.; Jafari, A.J.; Ahmadi, E., “Urinary level of heavy metals in people working in smoking cafés,” Environmental Research 207: 112110, May 1, 2022.

Samara, F.; Alam, I.A.; ElSayed, Y., “Midwakh: assessment of levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in dokha tobacco smoke,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology 46(3): 295-302, March 21, 2022.

Rezk-Hanna, M.; Gupta, R.; Nettle, C.O.; Dobrin, D.; Cheng, C.W.; Means, A.; Brecht, M.L.; Tashkin, D.P.; Araujo, J.A., “Differential effects of electronic hookah vaping and traditional combustible hookah smoking on oxidation, inflammation, and arterial stiffness,” Chest 161(1): 208–218, January 1, 2022.

Lipkus, I.M.; Sanders, C.; Mays, D., “Influencing perceptions of harm of waterpipe tobacco smoking among one member of couples who use waterpipe,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], December 25, 2021.

Abi-Gerges, A.; Dagher-Hamalian, C.; Abou-Khalil, P.; Chahine, J.B.; Hachem, P.; Khalil, C., “Evaluation of waterpipe smoke toxicity in C57BL/6 mice model,”

Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 63: 101940, August 2021.

Fu, M.; Feliu, A.; Fernández, E., “Shishas: another way of tobacco smoking…another source of exposure to toxic compounds,” Archives of Bronconeumology 57(7): 449-450, July 2021.

Hanewinkel, R.; Morgenstern, M.; Sargent, J.D.; Goecke, M.; Isensee, B., “Waterpipe smoking and subsequent cigarette and e-cigarette use: a cohort study,” ERJ Open Research 7(3): 00371-2021, July 2021.

Wagener, T.L.; Leavens, E.L.S.; Mehta, T.; Hale, J.; Shihadeh, A.; Eissenberg, T.; Halquist, M.; Brinkman, M.C.; Johnson, A.L.; Floyd, E.L.; Ding, K.; El Hage, R.; Salman, R., “Impact of flavors and humectants on waterpipe tobacco smoking topography, subjective effects, toxicant exposure and intentions for continued use,” Tobacco Control 30(4): 366-372, July 2021.

Masjedi, M.R.; Dobaradaran, S.; Keshmiri, S.; Taghizadeh, F.; Arfaeinia, H.; Fanaei, F.; Behroozi, M.; Nasrzadeh, F.; Joukar, M., “Use of toenail-bounded heavy metals to characterize occupational exposure and oxidative stress in workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health 43(5): 1783-1797, May 2021.

Crape, B.L.; Yakhiyayeva, T.; Kadyrzhanuly, K.; Gusmanov, A.; Sadykova, D., “Hookah venue employees’ knowledge and perceptions of hookah tobacco smoking,” Tobacco Control 30(3): 299-304, May 2021.

Rezk-Hanna, M.; Holloway, I.W.; Toyama, J.; Warda, U.S.; Berteau, L.C.; Brecht, M.L.; Sarna, L., “Transitions in hookah (waterpipe) smoking by U.S. sexual minority adults between 2013 and 2015: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 1 and Wave 2,” BMC Public Health 21(1): 445, March 5, 2021.

Keller-Hamilton, B.; Mehta, T.; Hale, J.J.; Leavens, E.L.S.; Shihadeh, A.; Eissenberg, T.; Brinkman, M.C.; Wagener, T.L., “Effects of flavourants and humectants on waterpipe tobacco puffing behaviour, biomarkers of exposure and subjective effects among adults with high versus low nicotine dependence,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], January 6, 2021.

Travers, M.J.; Rivard, C.; Sharma, E.; Retzky, S.; Yucesoy, B.; Goniewicz, M.L.; Stanton, C.A.; Chen, J.; Callahan-Lyon, P.; Kimmel, H.L.; Xia, B.; Wang, Y.; Sosnoff, C.S.; De Jesús, V.R.; Blount, B.C.; Hecht, S.S.; Hyland, A., “Biomarkers of exposure among USA adult hookah users: results from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2014),” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(17): 6403, September 2, 2020.

Al Oweini, D.; Jawad, M.; Akl, E.A., “The association of waterpipe tobacco smoking with later initiation of cigarette smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the gateway theory,” Tobacco Control 29(5): 577-584, September 2020.

El Shahawy, O.; Park, S.H.; Rogers, E.S.; Shearston, J.A.; Thompson, A.B.; Cooper, S.C.; Freudenberg, N.; Ball, S.A.; Abrams, D.; Shelley, D.; Sherman, S.E., “Hookah use patterns, social influence and associated other substance use among a sample of New York City public university students,” Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 15(1): 65, August 28, 2020.

Shekhar, S.; Hannah-Shmouni, F., “Hookah smoking and COVID-19: call for action,” Canadian Medical Association Journal [Online ahead of print], April 6, 2020.

El Hourani, M.; Salman, R.; Talih, S.; Saliba, N.A.; Shihadeh, A., “Does the bubbler scrub key toxicants from waterpipe tobacco smoke? Measurements and modeling of CO, NO, PAH, nicotine, and particulate matter uptake,” Chemical Research in Toxicology 33(3): 727-730, March 16, 2020.

Rezk-Hanna, M.; Nelson, M.D.; Rader, F.; Benowitz, N.L.; Rosenberry, R.; Chang, L.C.; Li, N.; Tashkin, D.P.; Elashoff, R.M.; Victor, R.G., “Peripheral blood flow changes to cutaneous and muscular beds in response to acute hookah smoking,” American Journal of Cardiology [Online ahead of print], March 14, 2020.

Badran, M.; Laher, I., “Waterpipe (shisha, hookah) smoking, oxidative stress and hidden disease potential,” Redox Biology [Online ahead of print], February 11, 2020.

Maziak, W.; Sharma, E., “Building the evidence base for waterpipe regulation and policy,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], November 25, 2019.

Ben Taleb, Z.; Vargas, M.; Ebrahimi Kalan, M.; Breland, A.; Eissenberg, T.; Brown, D.; Maziak, W., “The effect of flavoured and non-flavoured tobacco on subjective experience, topography and toxicant exposure among waterpipe smokers,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], November 25, 2019.

Kulak, J.A.; Bover Manderski, M.T.; Delnevo, C.D.; Hrywna, M.; Homish, G.G.; Giovino, G.A., “Differential trends in hookah use among New Jersey youth,” Preventing Chronic Disease 16: 190097, October 10, 2019.

Qasim, H.; Alarabi, A.B.; Alzoubi, K.H.; Karim, Z.A.; Alshbool, F.Z.; Khasawneh, F.T., “The effects of hookah/waterpipe smoking on general health and the cardiovascular system,” Environmental Health Prevention Medicine 24(1): 58, September 14, 2019.

Eddingsaas, N.C.; Hensel, E.C.; O’Dea, S.; Kunselman, P.; DiFrancesco, A.G.; Robinson, R.J., “Effect of user puffing topography on total particulate matter, nicotine and volatile carbonyl emissions from narghile waterpipes,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], August 12, 2019.

Al Oweini, D.; Jawad, M.; Akl, E.A., “The association of waterpipe tobacco smoking with later initiation of cigarette smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the gateway theory,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], July 30, 2019.

Naddafi, K.; Nabizadeh, R.; Rostamy, R.; Ebrahimi Kalan, M.; Hassanvand, M.S.; Fazlzadeh, M., “Indoor air quality in waterpipe cafés: exposure level to particulate matter,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research [Online ahead of print], July 10, 2019.

Azagba, S.; Latham, K.; Shan, L., “Waterpipe tobacco smoking trends among middle and high school students in the United States from 2011 to 2017,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 200: 19-25, July 1, 2019.

El Hourani, M.; Talih, S.; Salman, R.; Karaoghlanian, N.; Karam, E.; El Hage, R.; Saliba, N.A.; Shihadeh, A., “Comparison of CO, PAH, nicotine, and aldehyde emissions in waterpipe tobacco smoke generated using electrical and charcoal heating methods,”

Chemical Research in Toxicology 32(6): 1235-1240, June 17, 2019.

Al-Sawalha, N.A.; Alzoubi, K.H.; Khabour, O.F.; Alyacoub, W.; Almahmood, Y., “Effect of waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on learning and memory of offspring rats: role of oxidative stress,” Life Sciences 227: 58-63, June 15, 2019.

Kaplan, B.; Sussan, T.; Rule, A.; Moon, K.; Grau-Perez, M.; Olmedo, P.; Chen, R.; Carkoglu, A.; Levshin, V.; Wang, L.; Watson, C.; Blount, B.; Calafat, A.M.; Jarrett, J.; Caldwell, K.; Wang, Y.; Breysse, P.; Strickland, P.; Cohen, J.; Biswal, S.; Navas-Acien, A., “Waterpipe tobacco smoke: characterization of toxicants and exposure biomarkers in a cross-sectional study of waterpipe employees,” Environment International 127: 495-502, June 2019.

Seidenberg, A.B.; Orlan, E.N.; Travers, M.J.; Sufin, E.L., “Air quality and presence of air ventilation systems inside waterpipe cafés in North Carolina,” Tobacco Control 28(3): 356-358, May 2019.

Leavens, E.L.S.; Morgan, T.L.; Brett, E.I.; Lee, K.; Son, J.; Molina, N.; Eissenberg, T.; Shihadeh, A.; Leffingwell, T.R.; Wagener, T.L., “Concurrent alcohol use and waterpipe tobacco smoking: smoking topography, toxicant exposure, and abuse liability,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], March 1, 2019.

Primack, B.A.; Shensa, A.; Sidani, J.E.; Tulikangas, M.C.; Roberts, M.S.; Colditz, J.B.; Mor, M.K.; James, A.E.; Fine, M.J., “Comparison of toxicant load from waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smoking among young adults in the USA,” Tobacco Control 28(1): 60-66, January 2019.

Sezer, R.; Tanrıöver, Ö.; Dirimen Arıkan, G.; Kaçar, M., “A tobacco use survey among university students focusing on waterpipe use and relationship between first-tried tobacco product and becoming an established smoker,” Turkish Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 12(4): 281-287, 2018.

Case, K.R.; Creamer, M.R.; Cooper, M.R.; Loukas, A.; Perry, C.L., “Hookah use as a predictor of other tobacco product use: a longitudinal analysis of Texas college students,” Addictive Behaviors 87: 131-137, December 2018.

Bayly , J.; Trad, C.; Saint-Fort, L.; Andrews, M.; Patel, M.; Haynie, D., “Adoption of electronic-cigarette-free, hookah-free and American College Health Association recommended tobacco-free policies among a national sample of postsecondary educational institutions,” Journal of American College Health [Online ahead of print], November 2, 2018.

Brinkman, M.C.; Kim, H.; Buehler, S.S.; Adetona, A.M.; Gordon, S.M.; Clark, P., “Evidence of compensation among waterpipe smokers using harm reduction components,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], October 30, 2018.

Ahmad, I.; Dutra, L.M., “Imitating waterpipe: another tobacco industry attempt to create a cigarette that seems safer,” Addictive Behaviors [Online ahead of print], October 18, 2018.

Kulak, J.A.; Saddleson, M.L.; Travers, M.J.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Homish, G.G.; Mahoney, M.C.; Giovino, G.A., “Examining hookah as an introduction to nicotine products among college students,” Substance Use & Misuse 53(11): 1869-1877, September 19, 2018.

Ben Taleb, Z.; Breland, A.; Bahelah, R.; Ebrahimi Kalan, M.; Vargas-Rivera, M.; Jaber, R.; Eissenberg, T.; Maziak, W., “Flavored versus nonflavored waterpipe tobacco: a comparison of toxicant exposure, puff fopography, subjective experiences, and harm perceptions,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], July 4, 2018.

Agaku, I.; Odani, S.; Armour, B.; Glover-Kudon, R., “Social aspects of hookah smoking among US youth,” Pediatrics [Online ahead of print], July 2, 2018.

Rezk-Hanna, M.; Doering, L.; Robbins, W.; Sarna, L.; Elashoff, R.M.; Victor, R.G., “Acute effect of hookah smoking on arterial stiffness and wave reflections in adults aged 18 to 34 years of age,” American Journal of Cardiology [Online ahead of print], June 4, 2018.

Moon, K.A.; Rule, A.M.; Magid, H.S.; Ferguson, J.; Susan, J.; Sun, Z.; Torrey, C.; Abubaker, S.; Levshin, V.; Çarkoglu, A.; Radwan, G.N.; El-Rabbat, M.; Cohen, J.E.; Strickland, P.; Breysse, P.N.; Navas-Acien, A., “Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in waterpipe tobacco venue employees in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 20(4): 482-491, April 2018.

Kassem, N.O.F.; Kassem, N.O.; Liles, S.; Zarth, A.T.; Jackson, S.R.; Daffa, R.M.; Chatfield, D.A.; Carmella, S.G.; Hecht, S.S.; Hovell, M.F., “Acrolein exposure in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to hookah tobacco secondhand smoke: implications for regulating hookah tobacco products,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 20(4): 492–501, April 2018.

Kassem, N.O.F.; Kassem, N.O.; Liles, S.; Jackson, S.R.; Posis, A.I.B.; Chatfield, D.A.; Hovell, M.F., “Levels of urine cotinine from hookah smoking and exposure to hookah tobacco secondhand smoke in hookah lounges and homes,” International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction 7(1): e67601, March 2018.

Boley Cruz, T.; McConnell, R.; Wagman Low, B.; Unger, J.B.; Pentz, M.A.; Urman, R.; Berhane, K.; Ping Chou, C.; Liu, F.; Barrington-Trimis, J., “Tobacco marketing and subsequent use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes and hookah in adolescents,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], May 28, 2018.

Barnett, T.E.; Livingston, M.D., “Hookah use among adolescents: differential cognitions about hookah and cigarettes,” Addictive Behaviors75: 75-78, December 2017.

Travers, M.J.; Kulak, J.A.; Vogl, L., “Waterpipe cafés are hazardous to your health: determination of a waterpipe specific calibration factor,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health [Online ahead of print], October 12, 2017.

Weitzman, M.; Yusufali, A.H.; Bali, F.; Ruzmyn Vilcassim, M.M.; Gandhi, S.; Peltier, R.; Nadas, A.; Sherman, S.; Lee, L.; Hong, Z.; Shearston, J.; Hyun Park, S.; Gordon, T., “Effects of hookah smoking on indoor air quality in homes,” Tobacco Control 26(5): 586-591, September 2017.

Juhasz, A.; Pap, D.; Barta, I.; Drozdovszky, O.; Egresi, A.; Antus, B., “Kinetics of exhaled carbon monoxide after water-pipe smoking indoors and outdoors,” Chest 151(5): 1051-1057, May 2017.

Cohn, A.M.; Ehlke, S.J.; Cobb, C.O.; Soule, E.K., “Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use,” Addictive Behaviors 68: 1-5, May 2017.

Lopez, A.A.; Eissenberg, T.; Jaafar, M.; Afifi, R., “Now is the time to advocate for interventions designed specifically to prevent and control waterpipe tobacco smoking,” Addictive Behavior 66: 41-47, March 2017.

Yillmaz, S.G.; Llerena, A.; De Andrés, F.; Karakas, Ü.; Gündogar, H.; Erciyas, K.; Kimyon, S.; Mete, A.; Güngör, K.; Özdemir, V., “Water pipe (shisha, hookah, arghile) smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke effects on CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 phenotypes as measured by caffeine urine test,” OMICS 21(3): 177-182, March 2017.

Leavens, E.L.; Brett, E.; Frank, S.; Shaikh, R.A.; Leffingwell, T.R.; Croff, J.M.; Wagener, T.L., “Association between breath alcohol concentration and waterpipe lounge patrons’ carbon monoxide exposure: a field investigation,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 170: 152-155, January 1, 2017.

Zhou, S.; Behrooz, L.; Weitzman, M.; Pan, G.; Vilcassim, R.; Mirowsky, J.E.; Breysee, P.; Rule, A.; Gordon, T., “Secondhand hookah smoke: an occupational hazard for hookah bar employees,” Tobacco Control 26(1): 40-45, January 2017.

Majeed, B.A.; Sterling, K.L.; Weaver, S.R.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P., “Prevalence and harm perceptions of hookah smoking among U.S. adults, 2014-2015,” Addictive Behaviors 69: 78-86, January 2017.

Fedele, D.A.; Barnett, T.E.; Dekevich, D.; Gibson-Young, L.M.; Martinasek, M.; Jagger, M., “Prevalence of and beliefs about electronic cigarettes and hookah among high school students with asthma,” Annals of Epidemiology 26(12): 865-869, December 2016.

Kim, K.H.; Kabir, E.; Jahan, S.A., “Waterpipe tobacco smoking and its human health impacts,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 317: 229-236, November 5, 2016.

Elsayed, Y.; Dalibalta, S.; Abu-Farha, N., “Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal,” Science of the Total Environment 569-570: 262-268, November 1, 2016.

Bahelah, R.; DiFranza, J.R.; Ward, K.D.; Fouad, F.M.; Eissenberg, T.; Ben Taleb, Z.; Jaber, R.; Osibogun, O.; Maziak, W., “Correlates of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe smokers,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence [Online ahead of print], November 1, 2016.

Salloum, R.G.; Asfar, T.; Maziak, W., “Toward a regulatory framework for the waterpipe,” American Journal of Public Health 106(10): 1773-1777, October 2016.

Wagoner, K.G.; Cornacchione, J.; Wiseman, K.D.; Teal, R.; Moracco, K.E.; Sutfin, E., “E-cigarettes, hookah pens and vapes: adolescent and young adult perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18(10): 2006-2012, October 2016.

Park, S.H.; Duncan, D.T.; El Shahawy, O.; Shearston, J.A.; Lee, L.; Tamura, K.; Sherman, S.E.; Weitzman, M., “Analysis of state-specific prevalence, regional differences, and correlates of hookah use in U.S. adults, 2012-2013,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], September 9, 2016.

Ramôa, C.; Shihadeh, A.; Salman, R.; Eissenberg, T., “Group waterpipe tobacco smoking increases smoke toxicant concentration,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18(5): 770-776, May 2016.

Gurung, G.; Bradley, J.; Delgado-Saborit, J.M., “Effects of shisha smoking on carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations in the indoor and outdoor microenvironment of shisha premises,” Science of The Total Environment 548-549: 340-346, April 1, 2016.

Zhou, S.; Behrooz, L.; Weitzman, M.: Pan, G.; Vilcassim, R.; Mirowsky, J.E.; Breysee, P.; Rule, A.; Gordon, T., “Secondhand hookah smoke: an occupational hazard for hookah bar employees,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], January 25, 2016.

Colditz J.B.; Ton, J.N.; James, A.E.; Primack, B.A., “Toward effective water pipe tobacco control policy in the United States: synthesis of federal, state, and local policy texts,” American Journal of Health Promotion [Online ahead of print], January 5, 2016.

Kates, F.R.; Salloum, R.G.; Thrasher, J.F.; Islam, F.; Fleischer, N.L.; Maziak, W., “Geographic proximity of waterpipe smoking establishments to colleges in the U.S.,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 50(1): E9-E14, January 1, 2016.

Noland, M.; Ickes, M.J.; Rayens, M.K.; Butler, K.; Wiggins, A.T.; Hahn, E.J., “Social influences on use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah by college students,” Journal of American College Health [Online ahead of print], January 2016.

Zhou, S.; Weitzman, M.; Vilcassim, R.; Wilson, J.; Legrand, N.; Saunders, E.; Travers, M. ; Chen, L.C.; Peltier, R.; Gordon, T., “Air quality in New York City hookah bars,” Tobacco Control 24(e3): e193-e198, October 2015.

Al Mulla, A.; Fanous, N.; Seidenberg, A.B.; Rees, V.W., “Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar,” Tobacco Control 24(e3): e227-e231, October 2015.

Munshi, T.; Heckman, C.J.; Darlow, S., “Association between tobacco waterpipe smoking and head and neck conditions: a systematic review,” Journal of the American Dental Association 146(10): 760-766, October 2015.

Salloum, R.G.; Osman, A.; Maziak, W.; Thrasher, J.F., How popular is waterpipe tobacco smoking? Findings from internet search queries,” Tobacco Control 24(5): 509-513, September 2015.

Medford, M.A.; Gasier, H.G.; Hexdall, E.; Moffat, A.D.; Freiberger, J.J.; Moon, R.E., “Research report: charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production,” Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine 42(4): 375-380, July 2015.

Wang, L.W.; He, E.Y.; Ghosh, D.; Day, R.O.; Jones, G.R.; Subbiah, R.N.; Holloway, C.J., “Severe carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a public health concern,” Medical Journal of Australia 202(8): 446-447, May 4, 2015.

Barnett, T.E.; Soule, E.K.; Forrest, J.R.; Porter, L.; Tomar, S.L., “Adolescent electronic cigarette use: associations with conventional cigarette and hookah smoking,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine[Online ahead of print], March 31, 2015.

Maziak, W.; Taleb, Z.B.; Bahelah, R.; Islam, F.; Jaber, R.; Auf, R.; Salloum, R.G., The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking,” Tobacco Control 24(Suppl 1): i3-i12, March 2015.

Sterling, K.L.; Fryer, C.S.; Majeed, B.; Duong, M.M., Promotion of waterpipe tobacco use, its variants and accessories in young adult newspapers: a content analysis of message portrayal,” Health Education Research 30(1): 152-161, February 2015.

Galanti, M.R.; Al-Adhami, M., “Use of water pipe is not alternative to other tobacco or substance use among adolescents: results from national survey in Sweden,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 17(1): 74-80, January 2015.

Sidani, J.E.; Shensa, A.; Primack, B.A., Water pipe steam stones: familiarity and use among U.S. young adults,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 17(1): 114-118, January 2015.

Cinar, N.; Cakmak, V., “Is waterpipe smoking becoming increasingly widespread among the youth?,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 15(18): 8005-8006, December 2014.

Carroll, M.V.; Chang, J.; Sidani, J.E.; Barnett, T.E.; Soule, E.; Balbach, E.; Primack, B.A., “Reigniting tobacco ritual: waterpipe tobacco smoking establishment culture in the United States,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(12): 1549-1558, December 2014.

Markowicz, P.; Löndahl, J.; Wierzbicka, A.; Suleiman, R.; Shihadeh, A.; Larsson, L., A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke,” Science of the Total Environment 499: 107-113, November 15, 2014.

Mohammad, Y.; Shaaban, R.; Hassan, M.; Yassine, F.; Mohammad, S.; Tessier, J.F.; Ellwood, P.,Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 18(11): 1279-1284, November 2014.

Pepper, J.K.; Eissenberg, T., “Waterpipes and electronic cigarettes: increasing prevalence and expanding science,” Chemical Research in Toxicology 27(8): 1336-1343, August 18, 2014.

Alomari, M.A.; Khabour, O.F.; Alzoubi, K.H.; Shqair, D.M.; Eissenberg, T., “Central and peripheral cardiovascular changes immediately after waterpipe smoking,” Inhalation Toxicology 26(10): 579-587, August 2014.

Layoun, N.; Saleh, N.; Barbour, B.; Awada, S.; Rachidi, S.; Al-Hajje, A.; Bawab, W.; Waked, M.; Salameh, P., “Waterpipe effects on pulmonary function and cardiovascular indices: a comparison to cigarette smoking in Real life situation,” Inhalation Toxicology 26(10): 620-627, August 2014.

Kassem, N.O.F.; Daffa, R.M.; Liles, S.; Jackson, S.R.; Kassem, N.O.; Younis, M.A.; Mehta, S.; Chen, M.; Jacob III, P.; Carmella, S.G.; Chatfield, D.A.; Benowitz, N.L.; Matt, G.E.; Hecht, S.S.; Hovell, M.F., Children’s exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke carcinogens and toxicants in homes of hookah smokers,”

Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(7): 961-975, July 2014.

Martinasek, M.P.; Ward, K.D.; Calvanese, A.V., Change in carbon monoxide exposure among waterpipe bar patrons,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(7): 1014-1019, July 2014.

Sibai, A.M.; Tohme, R.A.; Almedawar, M.M.; Itani, T.; Yassine, S.I.; Nohra, E.A.; Isma’eel, H.A., “Lifetime cumulative exposure to waterpipe smoking is associated with coronary artery disease,”

Atherosclerosis 234(2): 454-460, June 2014.

Dugas, E.N.; O’Loughlin, E.K.; Low, N.C.; Wellman, R.J.; O’Loughlin, J.L., Sustained waterpipe use among young adults,”

Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(6): 709-716, June 2014.

St. Helen, G.; Benowitz, N.L.; Dains, K.L.; Havel, C.; Peng, M.; Jacob, III, P., “Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention [Online ahead of print], May 16, 2014.

Sharma, E.; Clark, P.I.; Sharp, K.E., Understanding psychosocial aspects of waterpipe smoking among college students,” American Journal of Health Behavior 38(3): 440-447, May 2014.

Dagaonkar, R.S.; Udwadi, Z.F., “Water pipes and e-cigarettes: new faces of an ancient enemy,” Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 62(4): 324-328, April 2014.

Maziak, W., The waterpipe: a new way of hooking youth on tobacco,” American Journal on Addictions 23(2): 103-107, March-April 2014.

Amrock, S.M.; Gordon, T.; Zelikoff, J.T.; Weitzman, M., “Hookah use among adolescents in the United States: results of a national survey,”Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(2): 231-237, February 2014.

Ishtiaque, I.; Shafique, K.; Ul-Haq, Z.; Shaikh, A.R.; Khan, N.A.; Memon, A.R.; Mirza, S.S.; Ishtiaque, A., “Water-pipe smoking and albuminuria: new dog with old tricks,” Plos One 9(1): e85652, January 17, 2014.

Lee, Y.O.; Hebert, C.J.; Nonnemaker, J.M.; Kim, A.E., “Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus,” Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], January 16, 2014.

Lee, Y.O.; Bahreinifar, S.; Ling, P.M., “Understanding tobacco-related attitudes among college and noncollege young adult hookah and cigarette users,” Journal of American College Health 62(1): 10-18, January 2014.

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