This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Giles, L.; Bauer, L.; Batchelor, S., “Assessing the responses of smokers to requests to stop smoking on hospital grounds,” Health Promotion Journal of Australia 33(2): 435-444, April 2022.

Breunis, L.J.; Versteylen, M.; Radó, M.K.; Dereci, N.; Boderie, N.W.; de Kroon, M.L.A.; Been, J.V., “Pediatric patients’ views regarding smoke-free hospital grounds compared to those of adults: a survey study,” Tobacco Prevention & Cessation 8: 07, February 17, 2022.

Robson, D.; Spaducci, G.; McNeill, A.; Yates, M.; Wood, M.; Richardson, S., “Fire incidents in a mental health setting: effects of implementing smokefree polices and permitting the use of different types of e-cigarettes,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(23): 8951, December 1, 2020.

Northrup, T.F.; Stotts, A.L.; Suchting, R.; Khan, A.M.; Green, C.; Klawans, M.R.; Quintana, P.J.E.; Hoh, E.; Hovell, M.F.; Matt, G.E., “Thirdhand smoke contamination and infant nicotine exposure in a neonatal intensive care unit: an observational study,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], September 1, 2020.

Martínez, C.; Castellano, Y.; Fu, M.; Riccobene, A.; Feliu, A.; Tigova, O.; Ballbè, M.; Anton, L.; Fernández, P.; Cabrera-Jaime, S.; Puig-Llobet, M.; Moreno, C.; Falcó-Pegueroles, A.; Galimany, J.; Estrada, J.M.; Guydish, J.; Fernández, E., “Patient perceptions of tobacco control after smoke-free hospital grounds legislation: multi-center cross-sectional study,” International Journal of Nursing Studies 102: 103485, February 2020.

Guydish, J.; Wahleithner, J.; Williams, D.; Yip, D., “Tobacco-free grounds implementation in California residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs,” Journal of Addictive Diseases [Epub ahead of print], January 25, 2020.

Romano, I.; Costello, M.J.; Ropp, C.; Li, Y.; Sousa, S.; Bruce, D.; Roth, D.; MacKillop, J.; Rush, B., “Evaluating the short-term impact of a tobacco-free policy in an inpatient addiction treatment setting,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 107: 50-59, December 2019.

Hemmy Asamsama, O.; Miller, S.C.; Silvestri, M.M.; Bonanno, C.; Krondilou, K., “Impact of implementing a tobacco and recreational nicotine-free policy and enhanced treatments on programmatic and patient-level outcomes within a residential substance use disorder treatment program,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 107: 44-49, December 2019.

Northrup, T.F.; Stotts, A.L.; Suchting, R.; Khan, A.M.; Green, C.; Quintana, P.J.E.; Hoh, E.; Hovell, M.F.; Matt, G.E., “Medical staff contributions to thirdhand smoke contamination in a neonatal intensive care unit,” Tobacco Induced Diseases 17: 37, April 24, 2019.

Gubner, N.R.; Williams, D.D.; Le, T.; Garcia, W.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Guydish, J., “Smoking related outcomes before and after implementation of tobacco-free grounds in residential substance use disorder treatment programs,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 197: 8-14, April 1, 2019.

Asfar, T.; Koru-Sengul, T.; Ruano-Herreria, E.C.; Sierra, D.; Lee, D.J.; Arheart, K.L., “Secondhand smoke exposure among high risk patients in the U.S. (NHANES 2001-2012): implications for clinical practice,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 21(4): 551-556, April 2019.

Fallin-Bennett, A.; Parker, K.A.; Miller, A.; Ashford, K.; Hahn, E.J., “Smoking and tobacco-free policies in women’s residential substance use disorder treatment facilities: a community-engaged approach,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 20(11): 1386-1392, November 2018.

Marynak, K.; VanFrank, B.; Tetlow, S.; Mahoney, M.; Phillips, E.; Jamal, A.; Shecter, A.; Tipperman, D.; Babb, S., “Tobacco cessation interventions and smoke-free policies in mental health and substance abuse treatment facilities — United States, 2016,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 67: 519-523, May 11, 2018.

Cork, K., “Reducing tobacco use in assisted living: obstacles and opportunities,” Tobacco Regulatory Science 3(4): 435-444, October 2017.

Fallin-Bennett, A.; Parker, K.A.; Miller, A.; Ashford, K.; Hahn, E.J., “Smoking and tobacco-free policies in women’s residential substance use disorder treatment facilities: a community engaged approach,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], September 19, 2017.

Robson, D.; Spaducci, G.; McNeill, A.; Stewart, D.; Craig, T.J.K.; Yates, M.; Szatkowski, L., “Effect of implementation of a smoke-free policy on physical violence in a psychiatric inpatient setting: an interrupted time series analysis,” Lancet Psychiatry 4(7): 540–546, July 2017.

Gage, S.H.; Maynard, O.M., “Smoke-free policies in psychiatric hospitals need resources,” Lancet Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print], June 14, 2017.

Santo, T.J.; Ellis, S.; Rivera, L.O.; Vasquez, L.E.; Francis, M.M.; Jin, W.K.; McRae, K.A.; Ellis, S.; Vasquez, L.E.; Place, R.J., “A tobacco-free medical campus policy is associated with decreased secondhand smoke exposure and increased satisfaction among military medical employees: results of a mixed-methods evaluation,” Military Medicine 182(5): e1724-e1732, May 2017.

Riad-Allen, L.; Dermody, S.S.; Herman, Y.; Bellissimo, K.; Selby, P.; George, T.P., “Becoming tobacco-free: changes in staff and patient attitudes and incident reports in a large academic mental health and addictions hospital,” American Journal of Addiction 26(2): 183-191, March 2017.

Agbonifo, N.; Hittle, B.; Suarez, R.; Davis, K., “Occupational exposures of home healthcare workers,” Home Healthcare Now35(3): 150-159, March 2017.

Chen, L.; Baker, T.; Brownson, R.C.; Carney, R.M.; Jorenby, D.; Hartz, S.; Smock, N.; Johnson, M.; Ziedonis, D.; Bierut, L.J., “Smoking cessation and electronic cigarettes in community mental health centers: patient and provider perspectives,” Community Mental Health Journal [Epub ahead of print], November 30, 2016.

Mackereth, P.; Finchett, C.; Holt, M., “Smoke-free hospital site conversations: how nurses can initiate change,” British Journal of Nursing 25(21): 1176-1180, November 24, 2016.

Northrup, T.F.; Khan, A.M.; Jacob, III, P.; Benowitz, N.L.; Hoh, E.; Hovell, M.F.; Matt, G.E.; Stotts, A.L., “Thirdhand smoke contamination in hospital settings: assessing exposure risk for vulnerable paediatric patients,” Tobacco Control 25(6): 619-623, November 2016.

Soyster, P.; Anzai, N.E.; Fromont, S.C.; Prochaska, J.J., “Correlates of nicotine withdrawal severity in smokers during a smoke-free psychiatric hospitalization,” Preventive Medicine 92: 176-182, November 2016.

Lawn, S.; Lucas, T., “Addressing smoking in supported residential facilities for people with severe mental illness: has any progress been achieved?,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(10): E996, October 2016.

Muilenburg, J.L.; Laschober, T.C.; Eby, L.T.; Moore, N.D., “Prevalence of and factors related to tobacco ban implementation in substance use disorder treatment programs,” Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 43(2): 241-249, March 2016.

Meernik, C.; Baker, H.M.; Paci, K.; Fischer-Brown, I.; Dunlap, D.; Goldstein, A,O., “Electronic cigarettes on hospital campuses,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health13(1): E87, December 29, 2015.

Ballbè, M.; Sureda, X.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.M.; Fu, M.; Saltó, E.; Gual, A.; Fernández, E., “Secondhand smoke in psychiatric units: patient and staff misperceptions,” Tobacco Control 24(e3): e212-e220, October 2015.

Lawn, S.; Feng, Y.; Tsourtos, G.; Campion, J., Mental health professionals’ perspectives on the implementation of smoke-free policies in psychiatric units across England,” International Journal of Social Psychiatry 61(5): 465-474, August 2015.

Filia, S.L.; Gurvich, C.T.; Horvat, A.; Shelton, C.L.; Katona, L.J.; Baker, A.L.; Stafrace, S.; Keppich-Arnold, S.; Kulkarni, J., “Inpatient views and experiences before and after implementing a totally smoke-free policy in the acute psychiatry hospital setting,” International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 24(4): 350-359, August 2015.

Serafin, A.; Franklin, S.; Mehta, R.; Crosby, S.; Lee, D.; Edlin, B.; Bewick, B.M., NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals’ ground: a qualitative analysis,” BMC Public Health 14(1): 1015, September 29, 2014.

Sullivan, D.H.; Rees, M.A., Smoking bans in secure psychiatric hospitals and prisons,” Journal of Law and Medicine 22(1): 22-30, September 2014.

Fitzpatrick, P.; Gilroy, I.; Doherty, K.; Conlon, G.; Daly, L.; Kelleher, C., “Exempting patients from a smoke-free hospital policy on compassionate grounds,” BMJ 348: g389, 2014.

Mearns, B., “Complete smoking ban in hospitals compromises compassionate care,” BMJ 347: f7574, 2013.

Lawn, S.; Campion, J., “Achieving smoke-free mental health services: lessons from the past decade of implementation research,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10(9): 4224-4244, 2013.

Keizer, I.; Gex-Fabry, M.; Bruegger, A.; Croquette, P.; Khan, A.N., “Staff representations and tobacco-related practices in a psychiatric hospital with an indoor smoking ban,” International Journal of Mental Health Nursing [Epub ahead of print], June 16, 2013.

Hehir, A.M.; Indig, D.; Prosser, S.; Archer, V.A., “Implementation of a smoke-free policy in a high secure mental health inpatient facility: staff survey to describe experience and attitudes,” BMC Public Health 13(1): 315, April 8, 2013.

Ballbe, M.; Sureda, X.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Salto, E.; Gual, A.; Fernandez, E., “Second-hand smoke in mental healthcare settings: time to implement total smoke-free bans?,” International Journal of Epidemiology [Epub ahead of print], March 29, 2013.

Tanriover, O.; Karamustafalioglu, N.; Tezvaran, Z.; Kaplan, A.; Tomruk, N., “Frequency of cigarette smoking among psychiatric inpatients evaluated by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 14(1): 579-582, 2013.

Eby, L.T.; Laschober, T.C., “Clinicians’ perceptions of implementation extensiveness of 100% tobacco free practices: a longitudinal study of New York state,” Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research [Epub ahead of print], February 21, 2013.

Eby, L.T.; Laschober, T.C., “A quasi-experimental study examining New York state’s tobacco-free regulation: effects on clinical practice behaviors,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence [Epub ahead of print], February 18, 2013.

Ballbe, M.; Nieva, G.; Mondon, S.; Pinet, C.; Bruguera, E.; Salto, E.; Fernandez, E.; Gual, A., “Smoke-free policies in psychiatric services: identification of unmet needs,” Tobacco Control 21(6): 549-554, November 1, 2012.

Unrod, M.; Oliver, J.A.; Heckman, B.W.; Simmons, V.N.; Brandon, T.H., “Outdoor smoking ban at a cancer center: attitudes and smoking behavior among employees and patients,” Journal of Public Health Management & Practice 18(5): E24-E31, September – October 2012.

Poder, N.; Carroll, T.; Wallace, C.; Hua, M., “Do smoke-free environment policies reduce smoking on hospital grounds? Evaluation of a smoke-free health service policy at two Sydney hospitals,” Australian Health Review [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

Shopik, N.A.; Schultz, A.S.; Nykiforuk, C.I.; Finegan, B.A.; Kvern, M.A., “Impact of smoke-free hospital grounds policies: patient experiences and perceptions,” Health Policy [Epub ahead of print], August 30, 2012.

McCaffrey, M.; Goodman, P.; Gavigan, A.; Kenny, C.; Hogg, C.; Byrne, L.; McLaughlin, J.; Young, K.; Clancy, L., “Should any workplace be exempt from smoke-free law: the Irish experience,”Journal of Environmental and Public Health [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

Rusting, R.R., “Enforcing the new ‘total’ hospital smoking bans,” Journal of Healthcare Protection Management 28(1): 120-124, 2012.

Hehir, A.M.; Indig, D.; Prosser, S.; Archer, V.A., “Evaluation of a smoke-free forensic hospital: patients’ perspectives on issues and benefits,” Drug and Alcohol Review [Epub ahead of print], April 24, 2012.

de Tormes Eby, L.T.; Sparks, T.E.; Evans, E.; Selzer, J.A., “A qualitative examination of the positive and negative consequences associated with going tobacco-free in substance abuse treatment: the NY State experience,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], March 13, 2012.

Drach, L.L.; Cushing, C.; Harris, R.L.; Morris, D.; Romoli, C., “Promoting smoke-free environments and tobacco cessation in residential treatment facilities for mental health and substance addictions, Oregon, 2010,” Preventing Chronic Disease 9, January 2012.

Ripley-Moffitt, C.; Viera, A.J.; Goldstein, A.O.; Steiner, J.B.; Kramer, K.D., “Influence of a tobacco-free hospital campus policy on smoking status of hospital employees,” American Journal of Health Promotion 25(1): e25-e28, September – October 2010.

Knudsen, H.K.; Boyd, S.E.; Studts, J.L., “Substance abuse treatment counselors and tobacco use: a comparison of comprehensive and indoor-only workplace smoking bans,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], September 2, 2010.

Gadomski, A.M.; Stayton, M.; Krupa, N.; Jenkins, P., “Implementing a smoke-free medical campus: impact on inpatient and employee outcomes,” Journal of Hospital Medicine 5(1): 51-54 January 8, 2010.

Goldstein, A.O.; Steiner, J.; McCullough, A.; Kramer, K.D.; Okun, M.F., “State adoption of 100% smoke-free acute non federal hospital campus policies,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(11): 2793-2799, November 2009.