This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Azagba, S.; Ebling, T.; Shan, L., “Sexual minority youth e-cigarette use,” Pediatrics 151(3): e2022058414, March 2023.

Azagba, S.; Ebling, T.; Shan, L., “A double disparity: rural sexual minorities and tobacco use among U.S. adults,” Addictive Behaviors 137: 107527, February 2023.

Adzrago, D.; Harrell, M.B.; Fujimoto, K.; Jones, A.; Wilkerson, J.M., “Association between e-cigarette use behaviors and anxiety/depression among Black/African American adults based on sexual identity,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20(3): 2078, January 23, 2023.

Layland, E.K.; Bray, B.C.; Kipke, M.D.; Maggs, J.L., “Intersectional stigma subgroup differences in unhealthy drinking and disordered marijuana use among Black and Latino cisgender sexual minority young men,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 241: 109652, December 1, 2022.

Krueger, E.A.; Repati, M.L.; Harlow, A.F.; Unger, J.B.; Lee, J.O.; Pedersen, E.R.; Conn, B.M.; Wong, C.; Young, L.E.; Barrington-Trimis, J.L.; Leventhal, A.M., “Changes in sexual identity and substance use during young adulthood,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 241: 109674, December 1, 2022.

Thomson, B.; Emberson, J.; Lacey, B.; Lewington, S.; Peto, R.; Jemal, A.; Islami, F., “Association between smoking, smoking cessation, and mortality by race, ethnicity, and sex among US adults,” JAMA Network Open 5(10): e2231480, October 24, 2022.

Vance, Jr., S.R.; Boyer, C.B.; Glidden, D.V.; Sevelius, J., “Comparing substance use and school-based stressors among Black and Latinx transgender youth and peers with shared minoritized identities,” Journal of Adolescent Health [Online ahead of print], October 9, 2022.

Eisenberg, M.E.; Gower, A.L.; Watson, R.J.; Rider, G.N.; Thomas, D.; Russell, S.T., “Substance use behaviors among LGBTQ+ youth of color: identification of the populations bearing the greatest burden in three large samples,” Journal of Adolescent Health 71(3): 317-323, September 22, 2022.

Sherman, J.; Dyar, C.; McDaniel, J.; Funderburg, N.T.; Rose, K.M.; Gorr, M.; Morgan, E., “Sexual minorities are at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease from a younger age than heterosexuals,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 45(4): 571-579, August 2022.

Harper, L.A.; Beck, K.C.; Drazdowski, T.K.; Li, C., “Sex and sexual identity differences in poly-tobacco use and psychological distress in U.S. adults: results from the National Health Interview Survey,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], July 27, 2022.

Tan, S., “California LGBTQ+ adult health behaviors and attitudes on tobacco: a report based on the California LGBTQ+ Tobacco Survey,” Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, June 2022.

Drabble, L.A.; Munroe, C.; Mericle, A.A.; Zollweg, S.; Trocki, K.F.; Karriker-Jaffe, K.J., “Impact of the policy environment on substance use among sexual minority women,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports 3: 100058, June 2022.

Ehlke, S.J.; Ganz, O.; Kendzor, D.E.; Cohn, A.M., “Differences between adult sexual minority females and heterosexual females on menthol smoking and other smoking behaviors: findings from Wave 4 (2016-2018) of the population assessment of tobacco and health study,” Addictive Behaviors 129: 107265, June 2022.

Martinez, U.; Simmons, V.N.; Brandon, K.O.; Quinn, G.P.; Brandon, T.H., “Examining smoking and vaping behaviors, expectancies, and cessation outcomes between bisexual and heterosexual individuals,” Behavioral Medicine [Online ahead of print], May 25, 2022.

Mattingly, D.T.; Titus, A.R.; Hirschtick, J.L.; Fleischer, N.L., “Sexual orientation discrimination and exclusive, dual, and polytobacco use among sexual minority adults in the United States,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19(10): 6305, May 23, 2022.

Titus, A.R., Gamarel, K.E., Thrasher, J.F.; Elliott, M.R.; Fleischer, N.L., “Exploring the potential for smoke-free laws to reduce smoking disparities by sexual orientation in the USA,” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine [Online ahead of print], May 17, 2022.

Sawyer, A.N.; Bono, R.S.; Kaplan, B.; Breland, A.B., “Nicotine/tobacco use disparities among transgender and gender diverse adults: findings from wave 4 PATH data,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 232: 109268, March 1, 2022.

Struble, C.A.; Bauer, S.J.; Lundahl, L.H.; Ghosh, S.; Ledgerwood, D.M., “Electronic cigarette use among sexual minority and heterosexual young adults in a U.S. national sample: exploring the modifying effects of advertisement exposure,” Preventive Medicine 155: 106926, February 2022.

Romm, K.F.; Huebner, D.M.; Pratt-Chapman, M.L.; Rodriguez-Diaz, C.E.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Berg, C.J., “Disparities in traditional and alternative tobacco product use across sexual orientation groups of young adult men and women in the US,” Substance Abuse 43(1): 815-824, 2022.

Titus, A.R.; Gamarel, K.E.; Thrasher, J.F. ; Emery, S.L.; Elliott, M.R.; Fleischer, N.L., “Are sexual minority adults differentially exposed to smoke-free laws and televised anti-tobacco media campaigns compared to the general US population? A descriptive analysis,” Tobacco Control 30(e2): e154-e157, December 2021.

Rodríguez-Bolaños, R.; Arillo-Santillán, E.; Guzmán-Rodríguez, C.; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, I.; Gallegos-Carrillo, K.; Titus, A.; Cruz-Jiménez, L.; Thrasher, J.F., “Similarities and differences in substance use patterns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual Mexican adult smokers,” LGBT Health 8(8): 545-553, November 2021.

Beck, D.C.; Veliz, P.T.; McCabe, S.E.; Boyd, C.J.; Evans-Polce, R., “Cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use during the third trimester of pregnancy in a national sample of heterosexual and sexual minority women,” American Journal of Addiction 30(6): 593-600, November 2021.

Azagba, S.; Shan, L., “Disparities in the frequency of tobacco products use by sexual identity status,” Addictive Behaviors 122: 107032, November 2021.

Ganz, O., Delnevo, C.D., “Cigarette smoking and the role of menthol in tobacco use inequalities for sexual minorities,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], July 13, 2021.

Liautaud, M.M.; Barrington-Trimis, J.L.; Liu, F.; Stokes, A.; Krueger, E.A.; McConnell, R.; Pang, R.D., “E-cigarette, cigarette, and cannabis use patterns as a function of sexual identity in a sample of Southern California young adults,” Addictive Behaviors Reports 13: 100338, June 2021.

Rezk-Hanna, M.; Holloway, I.W.; Toyama, J.; Warda, U.S.; Berteau, L.C.; Brecht, M.L.; Sarna, L., “Transitions in hookah (waterpipe) smoking by U.S. sexual minority adults between 2013 and 2015: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 1 and Wave 2,” BMC Public Health 21(1): 445, March 5, 2021.

Nguyen, N.; McQuoid, J.; Neilands, T.B.; Dermody, S.S.; Holmes, L.M.; Ling, P.M.; Thrul, J., “Same-day use of cigarettes, alcohol, and cannabis among sexual minority and heterosexual young adult smokers,” Psychology of Addict Behaviors 35(2): 215-223, March 2021.

Doxbeck, C.R.; Jaeger, J.A.; Bleasedale, J.M., “Understanding pathways to e-cigarette use across sexual identity: a multi-group structural equation model,” Addictive Behaviors 114: 106748, March 2021.

Tan, A.S.L.; Hanby, E.P.; Sanders-Jackson, A.; Lee, S.; Viswanath, K.; Potter, J., “Inequities in tobacco advertising exposure among young adult sexual, racial and ethnic minorities: examining intersectionality of sexual orientation with race and ethnicity,” Tobacco Control 30(1): 84-93, January 2021.

Garcia, L.C.; Vogel, E.A.; Prochaska, J.J., “Tobacco product use and susceptibility to use among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents,” Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], [Online ahead of print], December 23, 2020.

Al Rifai, M.; Mirbolouk, M.; Jia, X.; Nasir, K.; Pickett, J.K.; Nambi, V.; Ballantyne, C.M.; Merchant, A.T.; Blaha, M.J.; Virani, S.S., “E-cigarette use and risk behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey,” Kansas Journal of Medicine 13: 318-321, December 11, 2020.

Titus, A.R.; Gamarel, K.E.; Thrasher, J.F.; Meza, R.; Fleischer, N.L., “State-level structural stigma and smoking among sexual minority adults in the USA, 2012–2014,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine [Online ahead of print], November 16, 2020.

Shokoohi, M.; Salway, T.; Ahn, B.; Ross, L.E., “Disparities in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among bisexual people: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], September 15, 2020.

Kcomt, L.; Evans-Polce, R.J; Veliz, P.T.; Boyd, C.J.; McCabe, S.E., “Use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes/vaping among transgender people: results from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], August 19, 2020.

Max, W.B.; Stark, B.B.; Sung, H.; Offen, N.P., “Deaths from smoking and from HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men in California, 2005–2050,” Tobacco Control 29(3): 305-311, May 2020.

Guillory, J.; Crankshaw, E.; Farrelly, M.C.; Alam, I.; Fiacco, L.; Curry, L.; Hoffman, L.; Ganz, O.; Delahanty, J., “LGBT young adults’ awareness of and receptivity to the This Free Life tobacco public education campaign,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], January 15, 2020.

Acosta-Deprez, V.; Gorman, F.K.; Ai, M.; Chu, C.; Erlyana, E.; Records, C.; London, M., “Perceptions about flavored tobacco policies and smoking behaviors by age, gender and sexual orientation in the LGBTQ population in Los Angeles County,” Archives of Healthcare 1(1): 56-75, 2020.

Azagba, S.; Latham, K.; Shan, L., “Cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, and sexual identity among high school students in the USA,” European Journal of Pediatrics 178(9): 1343-1351, September 2019.

Delahanty, J.; Ganz, O.; Hoffman, L.; Guillory, J.; Crankshaw, E.; Farrelly, M., “Tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young adults varies by sexual and gender identity,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 201: 161-170, August 1, 2019.

Johnson, S.E.; O’Brien, E.K.; Coleman, B.; Tessman, G.K.; Hoffman, L.; Delahanty, J., “Sexual and gender minority U.S. youth tobacco use: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3, 2015-2016,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 57(2): 256-261, August 2019.

Wheldon, C.W.; Wiseman, K.P., “Tobacco use among transgender and gender non-conforming adults in the United States,” Tobacco Use Insights 12: 1179173X19849419, May 23, 2019.

Li, J.; Haardörfer, R.; Vu, M.; Windle, M.; Berg, C.J., “Sex and sexual orientation in relation to tobacco use among young adult college students in the US: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Public Health 18(1): 1244, November 8, 2018.

Cunningham, T.J.; Xu, F.; Town, M., “Prevalence of five health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention among sexual and gender minority adults — 25 U.S. States and Guam, 2016,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 67(32): 888–893, August 17, 2018.

Lee, S.J.; Sanders-Jackson, A.; Fallin-Bennett, A.; Tan, A.S.L., “Comparing the effects of organic, natural, and no additives labels on tobacco packaging between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual smokers,” Addictive Behaviors [Online ahead of print], August 2, 2018.

Caputi, T.L.; Smith, L.R.; Strathdee, S.A.; Ayers, J.W., “Substance use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning adolescents in the United States, 2015,” American Journal of Public Health 108(8): 1031-1034, August 2018.

Ganz, O.; Johnson, A.L.; Cohn, A.M.; Rath, J.; Horn, K.; Vallone, D.; Villanti, A.C., “Tobacco harm perceptions and use among sexual and gender minorities: findings from a national sample of young adults in the United States,” Addictive Behaviors 81: 104-108, June 2018.

Emory, K.; Buchting, F.O.; Trinidad, D.R.; Vera, L.; Emery, S.L., “Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) view it differently than non-LGBT: exposure to tobacco-related couponing, e-cigarette advertisements, and anti-tobacco messages on social and traditional media,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], March 12, 2018.

Ylioja, T.; Cochran, G.; Cochran, M.R.; Renn, K.A., “Frequent experience of LGBQ microaggression on campus associated with smoking among sexual minority college students,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 20(3): 340-346, March 2018.

Wintemberg, J.; McElroy, J.A.; Ge, B.; Everett, K.D., “Can smoke-free policies reduce tobacco use disparities of sexual and gender minorities in Missouri?,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research19(11): 1308–1314, November 2017.

Gerend, M.A.; Newcomb, M.E.; Mustanski, B., “Prevalence and correlates of smoking and e-cigarette use among young men who have sex with men and transgender women,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 179: 395-399, August 16, 2017.

Barnhill, M.M.; Lee, J.G.L.; Rafferty, A.P., “Health inequities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in North Carolina, 2011-2014,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(8): E835, July 25, 2017.

Buchting, F.O.; Emory, K.T.; Scout, [?]; Yoonsang, K.; Fagan, P.; Vera, L.E.; Emery, S., “Transgender use of cigarettes, cigars, and e-cigarettes in a national study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], January 13, 2017.

Offen, N.; Smith, E.A.; Gordon, B., “Early history of LGBT tobacco control: CLASH at 25,” Tobacco Control 25(5): 502-503, September 2016.

Fallin, A.; Davis, B., “LGBT organisation successfully advocated for ban on tobacco promotions in San Jose, California,” Tobacco Control 25(5): 504-505, September 2016.

Max, W.B.; Stark, B.; Sung, H.; Offen, N., “Sexual identity disparities in smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in California: 2003-2013,” American Journal of Public Health106(6): 1136-1142, June 2016.

Max, W.B.; Stark, B.; Sung, H.Y.; Offen, N., “Sexual identity disparities in smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in California: 2003-2013,” American Journal of Public Health[Online ahead of print], March 17, 2016.

Lee, J.G.; Pan, W.K.; Henriksen, L.; Goldstein, A.O.; Ribisl, K.M., “Is there a relationship between the concentration of same-sex couples and tobacco retailer density?,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Online ahead of print], March 5, 2015.

Hatzenbuehler, M.L.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Hasin, D.S., “State-level tobacco environments and sexual orientation disparities in tobacco use and dependence in the USA,” Tobacco Control 23(e2) e127-e132, November 2014.

Matthews, A.K.; Balsam, K.; Hotton, A.; Kuhns, L.; Li, C.C.; Bowen, D.J., “Awareness of media-based antitobacco messages among a community sample of LGBT individuals,” Health Promotion Practice 15(6): 857-866, November 2014.

Fallin, A.; Neilands, T.B.; Jordan, J.W.; Ling, P.M., “Secondhand smoke exposure among young adult sexual minority bar and nightclub patrons,” American Journal of Public Health 104(2): e148-e153, February 2014.

Newcomb, M.E.; Heinz, A.J.; Birkett, M.; Mustanski, B., “A longitudinal examination of risk and protective factors for cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth,” Journal of Adolescent Health [Online ahead of print], December 31, 2013.

Rath, J.M.; Villanti, A.C.; Rubenstein, R.; Vallone, D.M., “Tobacco use by sexual identity among young adults in the United States,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 15(11): 1822-1831, November 2013.

Kabir, Z.; Keogan, S.; Clarke, V.; Clancy, L., “Second-hand smoke exposure levels and tobacco consumption patterns among a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in Ireland,” Public Health 127(5): 467-472, May 2013.

Greene, D.C.; Britton, P.J., “Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender smokers: correlations with external health control, health expectations, and shame-focused coping strategies,”Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling 6(3): 202-228, 2012.

Leibel, K.; Lee, J.G.L.; Goldstein, A.O.; Ranney, L.M., “Barring intervention? Lesbian and gay bars as an underutilized venue for tobacco interventions,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 13(7): 507-511, July 2011.

Hatzenbuehler, M.L.; Wieringa, N.F.; Keyes, K.M., “Community-level determinants of tobacco use disparities in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: results from a population-based study,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 165(6): 527-532, June 2011.

McElroy, J.A.; Everett, K.D.; Zaniletti, I., “An examination of smoking behavior and opinions about smoke-free environments in a large sample of sexual and gender minority community members,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 13(6): 440-448, June 2011.

Blosnich, J.R.; Jarrett, T.; Horn, K., “Racial and ethnic differences in current use of cigarettes, cigars, and hookahs among lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults,” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 13(6): 487-491, June 2011.

Burkhalter, J.E.; Warren, B.; Shuk, E.; Primavera, L.; Ostroff, J.S., “Intention to quit smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender smokers,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research11(11): 1312-1320, November 2009.

Kelly, B.C.; Weiser, J.D.; Parsons, J.T., “Smoking and attitudes on smoke-free air laws among club-going young adults,” Social Work in Public Health 24(5): 446-453, September 2009.

Lee, J.G.; Griffin, G.K.; Melvin, C.L., “Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA, 1987 to May 2007: a systematic review,” Tobacco Control 18(4): 275-282, August 2009.

Dilley, J.A.; Spigner, C.; Boysun, M.J.; Dent, C.W.; Pizacani, B.A., “Does tobacco industry marketing excessively impact lesbian, gay and bisexual communities?,” Tobacco Control17(6): 385-390, December 2008.

Smith, E.A.; Thomson, K.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.E., “‘If you know you exist, it’s just marketing poison’: meanings of tobacco industry targeting in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community,” American Journal of Public Health 98(6): 996-1003, June 2008.

Gruskin, E.P.; Greenwood, G.L.; Matevia, M.; Pollack, L.M.; Bye, L.L., “Disparities in smoking between the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population and the general population in California,” American Journal of Public Health 97(8): 1496-1502, August 2007.

Gruskin, E.P.; Gordon, N., “Gay/lesbian sexual orientation increases risk for cigarette smoking and heavy drinking among members of a large Northern California health plan,” BMC Public Health 6: 241, October 3, 2006.

Smith, E.A.; Malone, R.E., “The outing of Philip Morris: advertising tobacco to gay men,” American Journal of Public Health 93(6): 988-993, June 2003.

Offen, N.; Smith, E.A.; Malone, R.E., “From adversary to target market: the ACT-UP boycott of Philip Morris,” Tobacco Control12(2): 203-207, June 2003.

Washington, H., “Burning love: Big Tobacco takes aim at LGBT youths,” American Journal of Public Health 92(7): 1086-1095, July 2002.

Skinner, W.F., “The prevalence and demographic predictors of illicit and licit drug use among lesbians and gay men,” American Journal of Public Health 84(8): 1307-1310, August 1994.