This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.
Nijssen, S.R.R., Müller, B.C.N.; Gallinat, J.; Kühn, S., “Applying persuasive messages to reduce public outdoor smoking: a pseudo-randomized controlled trial,” Applied Psychology: Health and Well Being 15(1): 337-353, February 2023.
Garritsen, H.H.; Rozema, A.D.; van de Goor, I.A.M.; Kunst, A.E., “How sports clubs decide to adopt an outdoor smoke-free policy: a qualitative study applying the Garbage Can Model,” Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 17(1): 54, July 20, 2022.
Puvanesarajah, S.; Tsai, J.; Alexander, D.S.; Tynan, M.A.; Gentzke, A.S., “Youth indoor and outdoor exposure to secondhand smoke and secondhand aerosol,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], April 14, 2022.
Bommelé, J.; Walters, B.H.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Willemsen, M.C., “Outdoor smoking as a nuisance to non-smokers: the case for smoke-free outdoor public spaces in dense urban areas,” Tobacco Prevention & Cessation 8: 08, February 21, 2022.
Kim, Y.; Lee, K., “Quantification of outdoor tobacco smoke exposure at outdoor smoking facilities,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 23(9): 1507-1511, September 2021.
Radó, M.K.; Mölenberg, F.J.M.; Westenberg, L.E.H.; Sheikh, A.; Millett, C.; Burdorf, A.; van Lenthe, F.J.; Been, J.V., “Effect of smoke-free policies in outdoor areas and private places on children’s tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory health: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Public Health 6(8): e566-e578, August 2021.
Henderson, E.; Lugo, A.; Liu, X.; Continente, X.; Fernández, E.; López, M.J.; Gallus, S., “Corrigendum to ‘Secondhand smoke presence in outdoor areas in 12 European countries’,” Environmental Research 199: 111337, August 2021.
Henderson, E.; Continente, X.; Fernández, E.; Tigova, O.; Cortés-Francisco, N.; Gallus, S.; Lugo, A.; Semple, S.; Dobson, R.; Clancy, L.; Keogan, S.; Ruprecht, A.; Borgini, A.; Tzortzi, A.; Vyzikidou, V.K.; Gorini, G.; López-Nicolás, A.; Soriano, J.B.; Geshanova, G.; Osman, J.; Mons, U.; Przewozniak, K.; Precioso, J.; Brad, R.; López, M.J., “Secondhand smoke exposure assessment in outdoor hospitality venues across 11 European countries,” Environmental Research [Online ahead of print], May 19, 2021.
Henderson, E.; Lugo, A.; Liu, X.; Continente, X.; Fernández, E.; López, M.J.; Gallus, S., “Secondhand smoke presence in outdoor areas in 12 European countries,” Environmental Research 195: 110806, April 2021.
Henderson, E.; Continente, X.; Fernández, E.; Tigova, O.; Cortés-Francisco, N.; Gallus, S.; Lugo, A.; Semple, S.; O’Donnell, R.; Clancy, L.; Keogan, S.; Ruprecht, A.; Borgini, A.; Tzortzi, A.; Vyzikidou, V.K.; Gorini, G.; López-Nicolás, A.; Soriano, J.B.; Geshanova, G.; Osman, J.; Mons, U.; Przewozniak, K.; Precioso, J.; Brad, R.; López, M.J., “Secondhand smoke exposure in outdoor children’s playgrounds in 11 European countries,” Environment International 149: 105775, April 2021.
de Granda-Orive, J.I.; Solano-Reina, S.; Jiménez-Ruiz, C.A., “Is smoking outside an enclosed space enough to prevent second and third-hand exposure?,” Archivos de Bronconeumology 57(2): 83-84, February 2021.
Henderson, E.; Continente, X.; Fernández, E.; Tigova, O.; Cortés-Francisco, N.; Gallus, S.; Lugo, A.; Semple, S.; O’Donnell, R.; Clancy, L.; Keogan, S.; Ruprecht, A.; Borgini, A.; Tzortzi, A.; Vyzikidou, V.K.; Gorini, G.; López-Nicolás, A.; Soriano, J.B.; Geshanova, G.; Osman, J.; Mons, U.; Przewozniak, K.; Precioso, J.; Brad, R.; López, M.J., “Secondhand smoke exposure and other signs of tobacco consumption at outdoor entrances of primary schools in 11 European countries,” Science of the Total Environment 743: 140743, November 15, 2020.
Cammalleri, V.; Marotta, D.; Protano, C.; Vitali, M.; Villari, P.; Cattaruzza, M.S., “How do combustion and non-combustion products used outdoors affect outdoor and indoor particulate matter levels? A field evaluation near the entrance of an Italian university library,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(14): 5200, July 18, 2020.
Guydish, J.; Wahleithner, J.; Williams, D.; Yip, D., “Tobacco-free grounds implementation in California residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs,” Journal of Addictive Diseases [Online ahead of print], January 25, 2020.
Yamato, H.; Kato, T.; Jiang, Y.; Shimizu, D.; Tomonaga, R.; Fujimoto, T.; Yamamoto, N., “Secondhand smoke from a veranda spreading to neighboring households,” Journal of UOEH 42(4): 335-338, 2020.
Ko, H., “The effect of outdoor smoking ban: evidence from Korea,” Health Economics [Online ahead of print], December 20, 2019.
Painters, K., “Outdoor smoking: fair or foul?,” BMJ 366: l5754, September 30, 2019.
Wilson, N.; Delany, L.; Thomson, G.W., “Smokefree laws and hospitality settings: an example from New Zealand of a deficient approach,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], September 13, 2019.
Ocampo, P.; Coffman, R.; Lawman, H., “Smoke-free outdoor seating policy: 1-year changes in compliance of bars and restaurants in Philadelphia,” American Journal of Health Promotion [Online ahead of print], August 13, 2019.
Thomson, G.; Nee-Nee, J.; Sutherland, K.; Holland, R.; Wilson, M.; Wilson, N., “Observed vaping and smoking in outdoor public places: piloting objective data collection for policies on outdoor vaping,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 43(4): 401-402, August 2019.
Sureda, X.; Bilal, U.; Fernández, E.; Valiente, R.; Escobar, F.J.; Navas-Acien, A.; Franco, M., “Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers,” Environmental Research 165: 220-227, August 2018.
Platter, H.N.; Pokorny, S.B., “Smoke-free signage in public parks: impacts on smoking behavior,” Tobacco Control 27(4): 470-473, July 2018.
Seitz, C.M.; Ragdale, T.L.; McIntyre, S.C.; Vest, A.; Gartner, M., “Monitoring outdoor tobacco policies of Virginia colleges: a descriptive analysis,” Virginia Journal of Public Health 2(1), Spring 2018.
Rozema, A.D.; Hiemstra, M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Jansen, M.W.J.; van Oers, H.J.A.M., “Impact of an outdoor smoking ban at secondary schools on cigarettes, e-cigarettes and water pipe use among adolescents: an 18-month follow-up,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(2): 205, February 2018.
Lowrie, C.; Pearson, A.L.; Thomson, G., “Inequities in coverage of smokefree space policies within the United States,” BMC Public Health 18: 736, 2018.
McIntire, R.K.; Singer, D.; DiVito, B.; Basile, V.; DiCarlo, M.; German, E.; Payton, C., “Characteristics associated with smoking among patrons of three Philadelphia parks,” Journal of Community Health [Online ahead of print], October 3, 2017.
Rozema, A.D.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Jansen, M.W.J.; van Oers, J.A.M., “Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study,” European Journal of Public Health[Online ahead of print], July 13, 2017.
Platter, H.N.; Pokorny, S.B., “Smoke-free signage in public parks: impacts on smoking behaviour,” Tobacco Control [Online ahead of print], July 14, 2017.
Thomson, G.; Wilson, N.; Collins, D.; Edwards, R., “Attitudes to smoke-free outdoor regulations in the USA and Canada: a review of 89 surveys,” Tobacco Control 25(5): 506-516, September 2016.
Pederson, A.; Okoli, C.T.; Hemsing, N.; O’Leary, R.; Wiggins, A.; Rice, W.; Bottorff, J.L.; Greaves, L., “Smoking on the margins: a comprehensive analysis of a municipal outdoor smoke-free policy,” BioMed Central 16: 852, August 22, 2016.
Fu, M.; Fernández, E.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.M.; San Emeterio, N.; Quirós, N.; Sureda, X.; Ballbè, M.; Muñoz, G.; Riccobene, A.; Centrich, F.; Saltó, E.; López, M.J., “Second-hand smoke exposure in indoor and outdoor areas of cafés and restaurants: need for extending smoking regulation outdoors?,” Environmental Research 148: 421-428, July 2016.
Gurung, G.; Bradley, J.; Delgado-Saborit, J.M., “Effects of shisha smoking on carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations in the indoor and outdoor microenvironment of shisha premises,” Science of The Total Environment 548-549: 340-346, April 1, 2016.
Zhang, X.; Martinez-Donate, A.; Rhoads, N., “Parental practices and attitudes related to smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor playgrounds in US households with underage children and smokers, 2010-2011,” Preventing Chronic Disease 12: E96, June 18, 2015.
Azagba, S., “Effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on exposure to second-hand smoke,” Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], April 22, 2015.
Mark, A.J.; Sanders, S.C.; Mitchell, J.A.; Seale, H.; Richmond, R.L., “Smoke-free outdoor areas: supporting local government to introduce tobacco control policies,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 38(6): 518-523, December 2014.
Vardavas, C.I.; Karabela, M.; Agaku, I.T.; Matsunaga, Y.; Myridakis, A.; Kouvarakis, A.; Stephanou, E.G.; Lymperi, M.; Behrakis, P.K., “Secondhand smoke exposure within semi-open air cafes and tobacco specific 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol (NNAL) concentrations among nonsmoking employees,” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 27(5): 875-881, October 2014.
Cho, H.; Lee, K.; Hwang, Y.; Richardson, P.; Bratset, H.; Teeters, E.; Record, R.; Riker, C.; Hahn, E.J., “Outdoor tobacco smoke exposure at the perimeter of a tobacco-free university,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 64(8): 863-866, August 2014.
van der Deen, F.S.; Pearson, A.L.; Petrovic’, D.; Collinson, L., “Exploring the potential for the drift of secondhand smoke from outdoor to indoor dining areas of restaurants in New Zealand,” Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association 127(1396), June 20, 2014.
Fu, M.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.M.; Galán, I.; Pérez-Ríos, M.; Sureda, X.; López, M.J.; Schiaffino, A.; Moncada, A.; Montes, A.;, Nebot, M.; Fernández, E., “Variability in the correlation between nicotine and PM2.5 as airborne markers of second-hand smoke exposure,” Environmental Research [Online ahead of print], October 28, 2013.
Potera, C., “Outdoor smoking areas: eoes the science support a ban?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 121(7): a229, July 1, 2013.
Sureda, X.; Fernandez, E.; Lopez, M.J.; Nebot, M., “Second-hand tobacco smoke exposure in open and semi-open settings: a systematic review,” Envirionmental Health Perspectives 121(7): 766-773, July 2013.
Bayer, R.; Bachynski, K.E., “Analysis and commentary: banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization,” Health Affairs 32(7): 1291-1298, July 2013.
Collins, D.; Parsons, M.; Zinyemba, C., “Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research [Online ahead of print], July 1, 2013.
Acevedo-Bolton, V.; Ott, W.R.; Cheng, K.C.; Jiang, R.T.; Klepeis, N.E.; Hildemann, L.M. “Controlled experiments measuring personal exposure to PM in close proximity to cigarette smoking,” Indoor Air [Online ahead of print], June 29, 2013.
Okoli, C.; Johnson, A.; Pederson, A.; Adkins, S.; Rice, W., “Changes in smoking behaviours following a smokefree legislation in parks and on beaches: an observational study,” BMJ Open [Online ahead of print], June 20, 2013.
Yamato, H.; Mori, N.; Horie, R.; Garcon, L.; Taniguchi, M.; Armada, F., “Designated smoking areas in streets where outdoor smoking is banned,” Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences 59(3): E93-E105, June 17, 2013.
Licht, A.S.; Hyland, A.; Travers, M.J.; Chapman, S., “Secondhand smoke exposure levels in outdoor hospitality venues: a qualitative and quantitative review of the research literature,” Tobacco Control 22(3): 172-179, May 2013.
Lopez, M.J.; Fernandez, E.; Perez-Rios, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Schiaffino, A.; Galan, I.; Moncada, A.; Fu, M.; Montes, A.; Salto, E.; Nebot, M., “Impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban in hospitality venues: indoor secondhand smoke exposure and influence of outdoor smoking,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 15(5): 992-996, May 2013.
Okoli, C.T.; Pederson, A.; Rice, W., “Support for a smoke-free bylaw in parks and on beaches,” Health Policy [Online ahead of print], April 17, 2013.
Gini, M.; Lianou, M.; Chalbot, M.C.; Kotronarou, A.; Kavouras, I.G.; Helmis, C.G., “Quantification of environmental tobacco smoke contribution on outdoor particulate aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology64(3): 347-356, April 2013.
Thomson, G.; Russell, M.; Jenkin, G.; Patel, V.; Wilson, N., “Informing outdoor smokefree policy: methods for measuring the proportion of people smoking in outdoor public areas,” Health and Place 20C: 19-24, December 7, 2012.
Sureda, X.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Lopez, M.J.; Fu, M.; Aguero, F.; Salto, E.; Nebot, M.; Fernandez, E., “Secondhand smoke levels in public building main entrances: outdoor and indoor PM2.5 assessment,” Tobacco Control 21(6): 543-548, November 1, 2012.
Patel, V.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., “Smoking increases air pollution levels in city streets: observational and fine particulate data,” Health & Place 18(5): 1202-1205, September 5, 2012.
Russell, M.; Wilson, N.; Thomson, G., “Health and nuisance impacts from outdoor smoking on public transport users: data from Auckland and Wellington,” New Zealand Medical Journal 88-91, August 24, 2012.
Lopez, M.J.; Fernandez, E.; Gorini, G.; Moshammer, H.; Polanska, K.; Clancy, L.; Dautzenberg, B.; Delrieu, A.; Invernizzi, G.; Munoz, G.; Precioso, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Stansty, P.; Hanke, W.; Nebot, M., “Exposure to secondhand smoke in terraces and other outdoor areas of hospitality venues in eight European countries,” PLoS One 7(8): e42130, August 2012.
Shoe, E., “Tobacco-free parks: maximizing health impact in built environment planning,” North Carolina Medical Journal 73(4): 287-288, July 2012.
St. Helen, G.; Bernert, J.T.; Hall, D.B.; Sosnoff, C.S.; Xia, Y.; Balmes, J.R.; Vena, J.E.; Wang, J.S.; Holland, N.T.; Naeher, L.P., “Exposure to secondhand smoke outside of a bar and a restaurant and tobacco exposure biomarkers in non-smokers,” Environmental Health Perspectives [Online ahead of print], April 6, 2012.
Gallus, S.; Rosato, V.; Zuccaro, P.; Pacifici, R.; Colombo, P.; Manzari, M.; La Vecchia, C., “Attitudes towards the extension of smoking restrictions to selected outdoor areas in Italy,” Tobacco Control 21(1): 59-62, January 2012.
Ariza, E.; Leatherman, S.P., “No-smoking policies and their outcomes on U.S. beaches,” Journal of Coastal Research 28(1A Supplement): 143–147, 2012.
Edward, R.; Wilson, N., “Smoking outdoors at pubs and bars: is it a problem? An air quality study,” Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association [Online ahead of print], December 16, 2011.
St. Helen, G.; Hall, D.B.; Kudon, L.H.; Baptiste, S.; Ferguson, S.; Green, T.; Naeher, L.R.; Pearce, J., “Particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide from secondhand smoke outside bars and restaurants in downtown Athens, Georgia,” Journal of Environmental Health 74(3): 8-17, October 2011.
Nebot, M.; Sureda, X.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Lopez, M.J.; Fu, M.; Aguero, F.; Salto, E., “Secondhand smoke levels in public building main entrances: outdoor and indoor PM2.5 assessment,” Tobacco Control[Online ahead of print], September 28, 2011.
Satterland, T.D.; Cassady, D.; Treiber, J.; Lemp, C., “Strategies implemented by 20 local tobacco control agencies to promote smoke-free recreation areas, California, 2004-2007,” Preventing Chronic Disease 8(5): A111 , September 2011.
Colgrove, J.; Bayer, R.; Bachynski, K.E., “Nowhere left to hide? The banishment of smoking from public spaces,” New England Journal of Medicine, May 25, 2011.
Kaufman, P.; Zhang, B.; Bondy, S.J.; Klepeis, N.; Ferrence, R., “Not just ‘a few wisps’: real-time measurement of tobacco smoke at entrances to office buildings,” Tobacco Control 20(3): 212-218, May 2011.
Karabela, M.; Vardavas, C.I.; Tzatzarakis, M.; Tsatsakis, A.; Dockery, D.; Connolly, G.N.; Behrakis, P., “The relationship between venue indoor air quality and urinary cotinine levels among semiopen-air cafe employees: what factors determine the level of exposure?,” Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, [Online ahead of print], October 20, 2010.
Stafford, J.; Daube, M.; Franklin, P., “Second hand smoke in alfresco areas,” Health Promotion Journal of Australia 21(2): 99-105, August 2010.
Kaufman, P.; Griffin, K.; Perkins, N.; Ferrence, R.; Cohen, J., “Smoking in urban outdoor public places: behaviour, experiences, and implications for public health,” Health Place [Online ahead of print], June 8, 2010.
Brennan, E.; Cameron, M.; Warne, C.; Durkin, S.; Borland, R.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A.; Wakefield, M.A., “Secondhand smoke drift: examining the influence of indoor smoking bans on indoor and outdoor air quality at pubs and bars,” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12(3): 271-277, March 2010.
Sureda, X.; Fu, M.; Lopez, M.L.; Martínez-Sanchez, J.M.; Carabasa, E.; Salto, E.; Martinez, C.; Nebot, M.; Fernandez, E., “Second-hand smoke in hospitals in Catalonia (2009): a cross-sectional study measuring PM2.5 and vapor-phase nicotine,” Environmental Research [Online ahead of print], 2010.
Hall, J.C.; Bernert, J.T.; Hall, D.B.; St Helen, G.; Kudon, L.H.; Naeher, L.P., “Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke at outdoor bars and family restaurants in Athens, Georgia, using salivary cotinine,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 6(11): 698-704, November 2009.
Cameron, M.; Brennan, E.; Durkin, S.J.; Borland, R.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A.; Spittal, M.J.; Wakefield, M.A., “Secondhand smoke exposure (PM2.5) in outdoor dining areas and its correlates,” Tobacco Control[Online ahead of print], October 21, 2009.
Zhang, B.; Bondy, S.; Ferrence, R., “Do indoor smoke-free laws provide bar workers with adequate protection from secondhand smoke?,” Preventive Medicine [Online ahead of print], July 6, 2009.
Klepeis, N.E.; Ott, W.R.; Switzer, P., “Real-time measurement of outdoor tobacco smoke particles,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 57: 522-534, 2007.
California Air Resources Board, “Proposed identification of environmental tobacco smoke as a toxic air contaminant,” Sacramento, CA: California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal-EPA), September 29, 2005.