In recent years, studies have concluded that tobacco and secondhand smoke are not only dangerous to people, but also to pets.

Specifically, with respect to secondhand smoke, researchers have found that exposure to tobacco smoke has been associated with certain cancers in dogs and cats; allergies in dogs; and eye and skin diseases and respiratory problems in birds, and other issues.

More recent research indicates that thirdhand smoke is also hazardous.

In addition, nicotine poisoning poses a hazard as pets are apt to ingest cigarettes or other tobacco products, drink water that contains cigar or cigarette butts, and even eat nicotine replacement gum and patches.

In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), issued a warning to pet owners about the hazards of secondhand and thirdhand smoke exposure.