This partial bibliography of studies is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be considered to replace medical advice from your physician, nor should it be considered as a list of every existing study on this topic. The ANR Foundation is unable to provide copies of any of the studies. Links to either the study’s abstract or full text are provided when available. The citations referenced below are presented without comment regarding the source, including any potential conflict of interest. Due diligence is recommended in researching the source of any given study before relying on its conclusions.

Laffey, K.G.; Nelson, A.D.; Laffey, M.J.; Nguyen, Q.; Sheets, L.R.; Schrum, A.G., “Chronic respiratory disease disparity between American Indian/Alaska Native and white populations, 2011–2018,” BMC Public Health 21: 1466, July 28, 2021.

Daley, A.; Rahman, M.; Watson, B., “A breath of fresh air: the effect of public smoking bans on Indigenous youth,” Health Economics [Epub ahead of print], April 15, 2021.

Vogel, E.A.; Benowitz, N.L.; Skan, J.; Schnellbaecher, M.; Prochaska, J.J., “Correlates of the nicotine metabolite ratio in Alaska Native people who smoke cigarettes,” Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology [Epub ahead of print], April 15, 2021.

Laux, F.L.; Henderson, P.N.; Soto, C.; Moor, G.; Leischow, S.J., “Commercial tobacco retailing in tribal jurisdictions: a field study,” American Journal of Health Behavior 45(2): 226-238, March 1, 2021.

Sittner, K.J.; Hautala, D.S.; Walls, M.L., “Conjoint adolescent developmental trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use and early adult outcomes among North American Indigenous people,” Addictive Behaviors 114: 106758, March 2021.

Spillane, N.S.; Schick, M.R.; Nalven, T.; Kirk-Provencher, K.T., “Three as of American Indian adolescent marijuana use: availability, acceptability, and approval,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 219: 108462, February 1, 2021.

Comiford, A.L.; Rhoades, D.A.; Spicer, P.; Dvorak, J.D.; Ding, K.; Wagener, T.L.; Doescher, M.P., “Impact of e-cigarette use among a cohort of American Indian cigarette smokers: associations with cigarette smoking cessation and cigarette consumption,” Tobacco Control 30(1): 103-107, January 2021.

O’Donald, E.R.; Miller, C.P.; O’Leary, R.; Ong, J.; Pacheco, B.; Foos, K.; Enright, K.; O’Leary, M.; Nez Henderson, P.; Lewis, J.; Erdei, E.; Henderson, J.A., “Active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among Cheyenne River Sioux communities in context of a Tribal Public Health Policy,” Tobacco Control 29(5): 570-576, September 2020.

Stanley, L.R.; Swaim, R.C.; Smith, J.K.; Conner, B.T., “Early onset of cannabis use and alcohol intoxication predicts prescription drug misuse in American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents living on or near reservations,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 46(4): 447-453, July 3, 2020.

Waa, A.; Maddox, R.; Nez Henderson, P., “Big Tobacco using Trojan Horse tactics to exploit Indigenous peoples,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], May 30, 2020.

Brooks, J.L.; Asafu-Adjei, J.; Currin, E.G.; Beeber, L.S., “Exploring a broader context of the home environment and its relationship with asthma control in American Indian children,”

Research in Nursing & Health [Epub ahead of print], April 9, 2020.

Hautala, D.; Sittner, K.; Walls, M., “Latent trajectories and profiles of commercial cigarette smoking frequency from adolescence to young adulthood among North American indigenous people,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], April 9, 2020.

Cunningham, J.K.; Ritchey, J.; Arambula Solomon, T.G., “With socioeconomic status controlled, cigarette use is lower among American Indians/Alaska Natives than whites,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence [Epub ahead of print], March 4, 2020.

Waa, A.; Robson, B.; Gifford, H.; Smylie, J.; Reading, J.; Henderson, J.A.; Nez Henderson, P.; Maddox, R.; Lovett, R.; Eades, S.; Finlay, S.; Calma, T., “Foundation for a Smoke-Free World and healthy Indigenous futures: an oxymoron?,” Tobacco Control 29(2): 237-240, March 2020.

Comiford, A.L.; Rhoades, D.A.; Spicer, P.; Dvorak, J.D.; Wagener, T.L.; Doescher, M.P., “Impact of e-cigarette use among a cohort of American Indian cigarette smokers: associations with cigarette smoking cessation and cigarette consumption,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], February 13, 2020.

Unger, J.B.; Sussman, S.; Begay, C.; Moerner, L.; Soto, C., “Spirituality, ethnic identity, and substance use among American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents in California,” Substance Use and Misuse [Epub ahead of print], January 30, 2020.

Begay, C.; Soto, C.; Baezconde-Garbanati, L.; Barahona, R.; Rodriguez, Y.L.; Unger, J.B.; Smiley, S.L., “Cigarette and e-cigarette retail marketing on and near California tribal lands,” Health Promotion Practice 21(1_suppl): 18S-26S, January 7, 2020.

Comiford, A.L.; Rhoades, D.A.; Dvorak, J.D.; Ding, K.; Mehta, T.; Spicer, P.; Wagener, T.; Doescher, M.P., “Use of potentially reduced exposure tobacco products among American Indian smokeless tobacco users: associations with cessation behaviors and cotinine levels,” Public Health Reports 135(1): 141-149, January 2020.

Smiley, S.L.; Soto, C.; Boley Cruz, T.; Kintz, N.; Rodriguez, Y.L.; Sussman, S.; Baezconde-Garbanati, L., “Point-of-sale marketing of little cigars and cigarillos on and near California Tribal lands,” Tobacco Control 29(1): 122-124, January 2020.

Rhoades, D.A.; Comiford, A.L.; Dvorak, J.D.; Ding, K.; Hopkins, M.; Spicer, P.; Wagener, T.L.; Doescher, M.P., “Vaping patterns, nicotine dependence and reasons for vaping among American Indian dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes,” BMC Public Health 19(1): 1211, September 2, 2019.

O’Donald, E.R.; Miller, C.P.; O’Leary, R.; Ong, J.; Pacheco, B.; Foos, K.; Enright, K.; O’Leary, M.; Nez Henderson, P.; Lewis, J.; Erdei, E.; Henderson, J.A., “Active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among Cheyenne River Sioux communities in context of a Tribal Public Health Policy,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], August 28, 2019.

Rhoades, D.A.; Comiford, A.L.; Dvorak, J.D.; Ding, K.; Driskill, L.M.; Hopkins, A.M.; Spicer, P.; Wagener, T.L.; Doescher, M.P., “Dual versus never use of e-cigarettes among American Indians who smoke,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine [Epub ahead of print], August 1, 2019.

Hoffman, L.; Ganz, O.; Delahanty, J.; Jones, C.; Homsi, G.; Nonnemaker, J., “Tobacco product use health equity among non-Hispanic American Indian Alaska Native youth in 29 states, 2007-2013,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 57(2): e43-e50, August 2019.

Anderson, K.M.; Kegler, M.C.; Bundy, L.T.; Henderson, P.; Halfacre, J.; Escoffery, C., “Adaptation of a brief smoke-free homes intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native families,” BMC Public Health 19(1): 981, July 23, 2019.

Carroll, D.M.; Wagener, T.L.; Stephens, L.D.; Brame, L.S.; Thompson, D.M.; Beebe, L.A., “The relationship between nicotine metabolism and nicotine and carcinogen exposure among American Indian commercial cigarette smokers and electronic nicotine delivery system users,” Addictive Behaviors 92: 58-63, May 2019.

Wilson, J.; Sabo, S.; Chief, C.; Clark, H.; Yazzie, A.; Nahee, J.; Leischow, S.; Nez Henderson, P., “Diné (Navajo) healer perspectives on commercial tobacco use in ceremonial settings: an oral story project to promote smoke-free life,” American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research 26(1): 63-78, 2019.

Buckless, B.; Rhodes, K.; McCann, M.; Christiansen, B.; Forster, J.; Joseph, A., “Feasibility of a systems approach to treat commercial tobacco dependence within American Indian health clinics,” American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research 25(3): 52-77, 2018.

D’Silva, J.; O’Gara, E.; Villaluz, N.T., “Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco,” Tobacco Control 27(e1): e57-e64, July 2018.

Tanner, J.; Henderson, J.A.; Buchwald, D.; Howard, B.V.; Nez Henderson, P.; Tyndale, R.F., “Relationships between smoking behaviors and cotinine levels among two American Indian populations with distinct smoking patterns,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 20(4): 466-473, April 2018.

Lempert, L.K.; Glantz, S.A., “Tobacco industry promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting tribal sovereignty,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], March 12, 2018.

Lowe, A.A.; Bender, B.; Liu, A.H.; Solomon, T.; Kobernick, A.; Morgan, W.; Gerald, L.B., “Environmental concerns for children with asthma on the Navajo Nation,” Annals of the American Thoracic Society [Epub ahead of print], February 27, 2018.

D’Silva, J.; O’Gara, E.; Villaluz, N.T., “Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco,” Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], February 19, 2018.

Comiford, A.; Garroutte, E.; Barbosa-Leiker, C.; Chen, S.; McDonell, M., “Prevalence and indicators of household smoking bans among American Indians,” Journal of Community Health [Epub ahead of print], February 9, 2018.

Pacheco, C.M.; Wellever, A.; Nazir, N.; Pacheco, J.; Berryhil, K.; Faseru, B.; Barnes, C.; Daley, C.M.; Choi, W.S., “Clearing the air: American Indian tribal college students’ exposure to second hand smoke & attitudes towards smoke free campus policies,” Journal of American College Health [Epub ahead of print], November 7, 2017.

Carroll, D.M.; Brame, L.S.; Stephens, L.D.; Wagener, T.L.; Campbell, J.E.; Beebe, L.A., “Community-based study recruitment of American Indian cigarette smokers and electronic cigarette users,” Journal of Community Health [Epub ahead of print], July 7, 2017.

Burhansstipanov, L.; Krebs, L.U.; Petereit, D.; Dignan, M.B.; Ahamed, S.I.; Sargent, M.; Cina, K.; Crawford, K.; Thibeault, D.; Bordeaux, S.; Kanekar, S.; Ahsan, G.M.T.; Williams, D.; Addo, I., “Reality versus grant application research ‘plans’,” Health Promotion and Practice [Epub ahead of print], July 2, 2017.

Rhoades, D.A.; Wagener, T.L.; Beebe, L.A.; Ding, K.; Dvorak, J.; Hopkins, M.; Doescher, M.P., “Electronic cigarette use among American Indian youth,” Tobacco Regulatory Science3(3): 315-324, July 2017.

Bosma, L.M.; Hanson, M., “Strengthening traditions and embracing a commercial tobacco-free campus,” Tribal College28(3): 40, Spring 2017.

Schmidt, L.M.; Reidmohr, A.A.; Helgerson, S.D.; Harwell, T.S., “Secondhand smoke exposure and smoke-free policy support among public housing authority residents in rural and tribal settings,” Journal of Community Health 41(6): 1116-1121, December 2016.

Lukowski, A.V.; Young, S.E.; Morris, C.D.; Tinkelman, D., “Characteristics of American Indian/Alaskan Native quitline callers across 14 states,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18(11): 2124-2129, November 2016.

Chief, C.; Sabo, S.; Clark, H.; Nez Henderson, P.; Yazzie, A.; Nahee, J.; Leischow, S.J., “Breathing clean air is S?’áh Naagháí Bik’eh Hózhóó (SNBH): a culturally centred approach to understanding commercial smoke-free policy among the Diné (Navajo People),” Tobacco Control 25(Suppl. 1): i19-i25, October 2016.

Nez Henderson, P.; Roeseler, A.; Moor, G.; Clark, H.W.; Yazzie, A.; Nez, P.; Nez, C.; Sabo, S.; Leischow, S.J., “Advancing smoke-free policy adoption on the Navajo Nation,” Tobacco Control 25(Suppl. 1): i26-i31, October 2016.

DeLong, H.; Chriqui, J.; Leider, J.; Chaloupka, F.J., “Common state mechanisms regulating tribal tobacco taxation and sales, the USA, 2015,” Tobacco Control 25(Suppl. 1): i32-i37, October 2016.

Sawchuk, C.N.; Roy-Byrne, P.; Noonan, C.; Bogart, A.; Goldberg, J.; Manson, S.M.; Buchwald, D., “The association of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression with smoking in American Indians,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18(3): 259-266, March 2016.

Kleipeis, N.E.; Dhaliwal, N.; Hayward, G.; Acevedo-Bolton, V.; Ott, W.R.; Read, N.: Layton, S.; Jiang, R.; Cheng, K.; Hildemann, L.M.; Repace, J.L.; Taylor, S.; Ong, S.; Buchting, F.O.; Lee, J.P.; Moore, R.S., “Measuring indoor air quality and engaging California Indian stakeholders at theWin-River Resort and Casino: collaborative smoke-free policy development,”International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(1): 143, January 2016.

Mowery, P.D.; Dube, S.R.; Thorne, S.L.; Garrett, B.E.; Homa, D.M.; Nez, H.P., “Disparities in smoking-related mortality among American Indians/Alaska Natives,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 49(5): 738-744, November 2015.

Brokenleg, I.S.; Barber, T.K.; Bennett, N.L.; Peart, B.S.; Blue, B.J., V., “Gambling with our health: smoke-free policy would not reduce tribal casino patronage,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 47(3): 290-299, September 2014.

Plescia, M.; Henley, S.J.; Pate, A.; Underwood, J.M.; Rhodes, K., Lung cancer deaths among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990-2009,” American Journal of Public Health 104(S3): S388-S395, June 2014.

Cobb, N.; Espey, D.; King, J., Health behaviors and risk factors among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 2000-2010,” American Journal of Public Health 104(S3): S481-S489, June 2014.

Young, C.F.; Skorga, P., “Interventions for tobacco use prevention in indigenous youth,” Public Health Nursing 30(5): 448-450, September 2013.

Margalit, R.; Watanabe-Galloway, S.; Kennedy, F.; Lacy, N.; Red, S.K.; Vinson, L.; Kills, S.J., “Lakota elders’ views on traditional versus commercial/addictive tobacco use: oral history depicting a fundamental distinction,” Journal of Community Health [Epub ahead of print], January 22, 2013.

Godlaski, T.M., “Holy smoke: tobacco use among Native American tribes in North America,” Substance Use and Misuse[Epub ahead of print], November 15, 2012.

Filippi, M.K.; McCloskey, C.; Williams, C.; Bull, J.W.; Choi, W.S.; Allen, G.K.; Daley, C.M., “Perceptions, barriers, and suggestions for creation of a tobacco and health website among American Indian/Alaska Native college students, ” Journal of Community Health [Epub ahead of print], November 13, 2012.

Nadeau, M.; Blake, N.; Poupart, J.; Rhodes, K.; Forster, J.L., “Circles of tobacco wisdom: learning about traditional and commercial tobacco with Native elders,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(5 Suppl 3): S222-S228, November 2012.

Wolfe, B.; Jakubowski, J.; Haveman, R.; Courey, M., “The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians,” Demography 49(2):499-524, May 2012.

Bowen, D.J.; Henderson, P.N.; Harvill, J.; Buchwald, D., “Short-term effects of a smoking prevention website in American Indian youth,” Journal of Medical Internet Research 14(3): e81, 2012.

Dennis, M.K.; Momper, S.L., “‘It’s bad around here now’: tobacco, alcohol and other drug use among American Indians living on a rural reservation,” Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 11(2): 130-148, April 2012.

Timberlake, D.S.; Wu, J.; Al-Delaimy, W.K., “Tribal casinos in California: the last vestige of indoor smoking,” BMC Public Health 12:144, February 25, 2012.

Satter, D.E.; Roby, D.H.; Smith, L.M.; Avendano, K.K.; Kaslow, J.; Wallace, S.P., “Costs of smoking and policy strategies for California American Indian communities,” Journal of Cancer Education [Epub ahead of print], February 21, 2012.

Sawchuk, C.N.; Roy-Byrne, P.; Noonan, C.; Bogart, A.; Goldberg, J.; Manson, S.M.; Buchwald, D., “Smokeless tobacco use and its relation to panic disorder, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in American Indians,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], February 17, 2012.

Dent, C.W.; Maher, J.E.; Pizacani, B.A.; Dowler, D.W.; Rohde, K.; Peterson, E., “Secondhand smoke exposure in Alaskan households with children,” Rural and Remote Health [Epub ahead of print], December 8, 2010.

Satter, D.E.; Roby, D.H.; Smith, L.M.; Wallace, S.P., “Costs of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in California American Indian communities (anniversary report),” Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, October 2010.

Day, S.; Ortiz, Y.; Scott, S., “Creating healthier policies in Indian casinos tribal report,” Minneapolis, MN: Indigenous Peoples Task Force, August 2007.